Year 2002
Calendar
By Tradition...
Jewish - Kabbalah
Holidays - 2002
Christian -
Ecumenical Mysticism /
Wisdom Tradition

Holidays - 2002
Unitarian Universalist
Holidays - 2002
Muslim - Sufi
Holidays - 2002
Baha'i Holidays - 2002
±±±±±±±±±±
Hindu Holidays - 2002
Jain & Sikh
Holidays - 2002
Buddhist Holidays - 2002
Taoist & Shinto
Holidays - 2002
±±±±±±±±±±
African &
Middle-Eastern
Holidays:
Ancient Egyptian,
Santeria, Zoroastrian - 2002
Native American
(Iroquois, Navajo
& Pueblo)
& Meso American
(Inca, Mayan & Aztec)
Holidays - 2002
Pagan Holidays:
Old Religions of Europe
(Greek, Roman, Slavic,
Celtic, Anglo-Teutonic
& Norse) - 2002
±±±±±±±±±±
Deep Ecology /
Environmentalist
Dates - 2002
Social Justice /
Human Rights /
Feminist
Dates - 2002
Peace /
Disarmament
Dates - 2002
±±±±±±±±±±
Solar & Lunar Cycles,
Eclipse & Helions - 2002
Meteor Showers - 2002
Visible Planets - 2002
Astrological Periods - 2002
±±±±±±±±±±
Experiential Meditations
(for lunar cycles

throughout the year)
Empowering Meditations
Action Offerings
(to help the environment 
& further social justice)
Art as Meditation
±±±±±±±±±±±±±±±±±±±±
You are viewing the 2002 calendar. View a different year. Return home.

2002 Neo-Pagan Holidays 
& Holidays of the Old Religions of Europe
(Greek, Roman, Slavic,
Celtic, Anglo-Teutonic & Norse)

* 12/25 to 1/5: Yule--Old Anglo-Teutonic festival honoring God Freyr, Goddess Freyja, and God Balder.

* 1/1: World Peace Day--Day to meditate for peace throughout the world. [Universal Hour of Peace: 7:00-8:00 a.m. EST.]

* 1/1 to 1/31: January dedicated to Old Roman God-Goddess Janus-Jana, who knows both past and future.

* 1/4: Day ethnic discrimination was outlawed world-wide (1969); day to mourn all manifestations of racism. [Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination: signed/adopted 3/7/1966; entered into force 1/4/1969.] [Text of Convention] [The Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) monitors implementation of the Convention. For more information, see Human Rights Watch website.] [Article 2 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Article 2 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) also prohibit discrimination on account of race.] [The U.N. has designated 3/21 to 3/27 Week of Solidarity with the Peoples Struggling against Racism and Racial Discrimination.]

* 1/5 eve: Feast of Old Roman Goddess Befana, the old woman who flies on a broom, bringing gifts to all good children. [Roman calendar]

* 1/12: Day genocide was outlawed world-wide (1951); day to mourn all victims of genocide. [Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide: signed/adopted 12/9/1948; entered into force 1/12/1951.] [Text of Convention] [For more information, see Prevent Genocide International website.] [All should condemn all past genocides and, to prevent future genocides, should demand an end to persecution on account of any nationality, ethnicity, "race" or religion.]

* 1/13 (8:29 a.m. EST): New Moon.

* 1/13 eve to 1/14 eve: Feast of Old Greek Goddess Hekate, who guides all through transitions and crisis. [Poseideon last day]

* 1/13 to 1/25 (Icelandic 1/25, Old Icelandic 1/11): Old Norse Mid-Winter Feast--Offerings were made to the Deities (particularly Jord, Thor, and Freyr) for growth of crops. Toasts of mead and ale were made in honor of the Deities. [a/k/a Mid-Winter Blot, Midvetr, Midvetrarblot, Jordblot, Thorrablot, Freyrblot]

* 1/14 eve to 1/15 eve: Gamelion Noumenia--Old Greek festival honoring all the Gods and Goddesses. Flutes were played; prayers were said; offerings of barley, olive oil, incense, and food were burned in an offering hearth; and libations of water and wine were made. [Gamelion 1]

* 1/16 eve to 1/17 eve: Feast of the Charites--Day to honor the Old Greek Goddesses of beneficence. [Gamelion 3]

* 1/17 eve to 1/18 eve: Feast of Old Greek Goddess Aphrodite--Day to honor peace and compassion. [Gamelion 4]

* 1/20: World Religions Day--Day to contemplate all religions as different paths to the one universal Deity of many names and aspects.

* 1/23: Birthday of Marija Gimbutas (1921), archeologist who studied Old European Goddess-God spirituality. [Death day 2/2/1994]

* 1/24 to 2/1: Sementivae--Old Roman festival of sowing, honoring Earth Goddess Terra (Greek Gaia), Grain Goddess Ceres (Greek Demeter), and Seed Goddess Proserpina (Greek Persephone). [Roman calendar]

* 1/28 (5:50 p.m. EST): Full Moon (Cold/Seed Moon). [a/k/a Aquarius Full Moon]

* 1/31 eve to 2/2 eve: Imbolc/St. Brigid's Day--Old Celtic/Irish feast of Goddess Brigid; merged with the Christian feast of St. Brigid. Fires were lit to welcome Her as She traveled about blessing fields, animals, and people.

* 1/31 eve to 2/3 eve: Mid-Winter/Groundhog's Day/Candlemas--Festival marking the transformation from death to life - the beginning of the agricultural year, awakening of hibernating animals, and return of migrating birds and fish. Observed with a candlelight procession to bless fields and seeds, recognition of newborns, and contemplation of life. [a/k/a Old European cross-quarter day, Neo-Pagan cross-quarter day, Wiccan cross-quarter day, Mid-Winter Sabbat]

* 2/1 to 2/14: Old Greek festival of God Dionysos, in which vines were pruned and sprinkled with wine, accompanied by ritual singing and dancing. [Originated in ancient Thrace; still celebrated in Bulgaria.] [a/k/a Trifon Zarezan, Viticulturists' Day] [Roman calendar]

* 2/1 to 2/28: February dedicated to Old Roman Goddess-God Februa-Februus - purifier and protector of the home. Homes were cleaned and blessed, offerings of reparation were given, and peace was made.

* 2/1 to 2/28: Ethnic Equality Month--Time to honor all peoples and their positive traditions; time to meditate on the equality of all peoples, on the respect due to them, and on God-Goddess manifesting as African, Asian, Oceanic, Middle Eastern, European, Hispanic, and Native American. [Expands idea of African-American History Month a/k/a Black History Month.]

* 2/5 to 2/6: Feast of Old Romano-Egyptian Goddess Isis, the Healer--recalls Set (God of Challenges and Chaos) poisoning child God Horus, and Isis intervening, defeating Set, and healing Horus. [Roman calendar]

* 2/11 eve to 2/14 eve: Old European Lunar New Year--Celebration of the Triple Goddess (Goddess of the Moon and the Seasons) being transformed from the Crone into the Virgin; celebrated with ritual bathing of divine images.

* 2/12 (2:41 a.m. EST): New Moon.

* 2/13 eve to 2/14 eve: Anthesterion Noumenia--Old Greek festival honoring all the Gods and Goddesses. Flutes were played; prayers were said; offerings of barley, olive oil, incense, and food were burned in an offering hearth; and libations of water and wine were made. [Anthesterion 1]

* 2/13 to 2/15: Lupercalia/St. Valentine's Day--Old Roman festival of God-Goddess Faunus-Fauna; merged with the Christian feast of St. Valentine - celebrating love of all kinds.

* 2/16 eve to 2/17 eve: Feast of Old Greek Deities Aphrodite and Eros--Day to honor love and passion. [Anthesterion 4]

* 2/18 eve to 2/19 eve: Feast of Old Greek Goddess Artemis (Roman Diana/Slavic Diwitsa) - as creatrix, midwife of birthing creatures, protector of the young, and punisher of child abusers. [Anthesterion 6]

* 2/22: Caristia--Old Roman festival for renewing family ties and patching up quarrels. [Roman calendar]

* 2/23 eve to 2/26 eve: Anthesteria--Old Greek festival honoring Dionysos as Plouton, God of the Dead, and welcoming the visiting dead from Elysium. The new wine was presented to Dionysos, and libations were made. [Anthesterion 11-13]

* 2/27 (4:17 a.m. EST): Full Moon (Leaf/Seedling Moon). [a/k/a Pisces Full Moon]

* 2/28: Old Slavic Velja Noc/Great Night/New Year's Eve--Spirits of the dead visit their living relatives, overseen by Veles (Lord of the Dead). People wearing animal masks and wool cloaks wandered through the villages representing the dead, and a grain effigy of the Morana of the old year was burned. Morana and Jarilo are born of Solntse (Goddess of the Sun) and Perun (God of the Sky). Veles steals Jarilo and raises him in Virey, realm of the dead. [a/k/a Wielkanoc]

* 3/1: Day the production and use of landmines was outlawed world-wide (1999); day to mourn their victims. [Convention on Landmines a/k/a Mine Ban Treaty] [Text of Convention] [The U.S. has not ratified the protocol.] [Landmines maim and kill civilians, including children. Those that survive endure a lifetime of hardship.] [All should renounce the production and use of landmines, and should demand removal and destruction of all existing landmines.] [For more information, see International Campaign to Ban Landmines (I.C.B.L.) website; Adopt a Minefield website.]

* 3/1 to 3/31: Gender Equality Month--Time to honor both genders; time to meditate on the equality of women and men, on the respect due to both women and men, and on Goddess-God manifesting as woman and man. [Expands idea of Women's History Month.]

* 3/4 eve to 3/11 eve: Lesser Eleusinian Mysteries--Old Greek festival celebrating the marriage of Goddess Kore and God Dionysos, following their return from Elysium. Devotees dedicated themselves to service of Goddess and God after being purified by water and fire. Dionysos was identified with Plouton at Eleusis. While Demeter believed Her daughter to have been abducted and raped by Dionysos-Plouton, from the perspective of Kore-Persephone and Dionysos-Plouton, it was an elopement. [Anthesterion 20-26]

* 3/5: Navigium Isidis--Old Romano-Egyptian festival honoring Goddess Isis as Lady of the Moon and Ruler of the Sea; celebrated with the launching of a boat of offerings. Also celebrated with a procession to the sea and a procession of ships. [Roman calendar]

* 3/8: International Women's Day--Day to mourn victims of gender-based oppression and misogyny (past and present), make peace, and celebrate women's empowerment. [See U.N. website on International Women's Day; A history of International Women's Day.]

* 3/13 (9:02 p.m. EST): New Moon.

* 3/14 eve to 3/15 eve: Elaphebolion Noumenia--Old Greek festival honoring all the Gods and Goddesses. Flutes were played; prayers were said; offerings of barley, olive oil, incense, and food were burned in an offering hearth; and libations of water and wine were made. [Elaphebolion 1]

* 3/15 to 3/21: Old Anglo-Teutonic festival of Goddess Ostara, celebrating the annual rebirth. Her Hare gave gifts of eggs - signifying rebirth.

* 3/16 eve to 3/17 eve: Feast of Old Greek Goddess Athena - as protector and defender. [Elaphebolion 3]

* 3/17: St. Patrick's Day--Old European festival marking rebirth of Viridios/the Green Man/Green George (God as Deciduous Vegetation); merged with the Christian feast of St. Patrick.

* 3/17 eve to 3/18 eve: Feast of Old Greek Deities Aphrodite and Hermes--Day to honor the divine feminine and divine masculine in harmony.[Elaphebolion 4]

* 3/19 eve to 3/20 eve: Feast of Old Greek Goddess Artemis (Roman Diana/Slavic Diwitsa) - as protector of wild animals, vegetation, and places. [Elaphebolion 6]

* 3/19 to 3/23: Quinquatrus of Minerva--Old Roman festival of Goddess Minerva (Greek Athena) - as font of artistic inspiration. [Roman calendar]

* 3/20 (2:16 p.m. EST): Spring Equinox--Marks the beginning of Spring and point of equal daylight and darkness; celebrates first, annual, and perpetual Creation with egg hunts and exchanges. [a/k/a Old European turning-of-the-season day, Neo-Pagan turning-of-the-season day, Wiccan turning-of-the-season day, Spring Sabbat]

* 3/20: Old Slavic Jare--God Jarilo/Lado returns from Virey (the realm of the dead across the sea) to reunite with Goddess Morana/Lada. Their love and happiness bring the world light, warmth, and fertility. Celebrated with a youth on a horse leading a procession of boys and girls carrying boughs of greens and flowers to bless each house in the village. [a/k/a Jurjevo]

* 3/21: World Forest Day--Day to celebrate the complex living community of trees, plants, birds, and mammals that live in forests world-wide; day to give thanks for forests for cleaning the air of pollution. [Forest once covered 50% of the world. Today, forest covers only 30% of the world. Since 1600, 90% of the original forests that once covered the lower 48 states of the U.S. has been cleared away. Most deforestation of North America, Europe, the Middle East, and Asia occurred before 2000 and has stabilized. Deforestation continues to accelerate in South America and Africa. The rate of world deforestation averaged 5.2 million hectares per year between 2000 and 2010.] [For information about conservation of forests, see American Forests website; Forests.org website; International Union for Conservation of Nature (I.U.C.N.) website; World Wildlife Fund (W.W.F.) website; Greenpeace website. See also Statement of Principles for the Sustainable Management of Forests; Our Forests, Our Future: Summary Report of the World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development.] [All should demand an end to deforestation, and should demand universal observance of sustainable management practices of the world's forests.] [a/k/a World Forestry Day]

* 3/21 eve to 3/22 eve: Asklepieia--Old Greek festival honoring Asklepios, God of healing, and Hygieia, Goddess of health. [Elaphebolion 8]

* 3/22 eve to 3/27 eve: City Dionysia--Old Greek festival honoring God Dionysos as patron of drama, poetry, music, and inspiration. Actors performed sacred drama, poets recited hymns, musicians played instruments, singers sang songs, and dancers danced. [Elaphebolion 9-13]

* 3/26: Birthday of Joseph Campbell (1904), who found Deity within all religions and myths. [Death day 10/31/1987]

* 3/26: Day production and use of biological weapons was outlawed world-wide (1975); day to mourn their victims. [Biological Weapons Convention] [Text of Convention] [20 countries are believed to have current or past biological weapons programs.] [All should renounce the production, acquisition, and use of biological weapons, and should demand destruction of all existing weapons.] [For more information, see Wikipedia article on Biological Warfare. See also U.N. Office for Disarmament Affairs (U.N.O.D.A.) website; Federation of American Scientists (F.A.S.) Biological and Chemical Weapons Main Page.]

* 3/28 (1:25 p.m. EST): Full Moon (White/Virgin Moon). [a/k/a Aries Full Moon]

* 3/28: Death day of Scott Cunningham (1993), who taught a reverent, ethical, egalitarian, and ecological form of Wicca. Wiccans create sacred space by calling on the powers of the four directions, invoke the Lord and Lady in their various guises, and raise power (through drumming, dance, and chant) to realize a positive purpose. [Birthday 6/27/1956]

* 4/1: Veneralia--Old Roman festival celebrating Venus (Goddess of Peace) vanquishing Mars (God of War) with love. She nurtures peace, friendship, and love; and punishes war-mongers, hate-mongers, and false friends and lovers. [Roman calendar]

* 4/7: World Health Day--Day to pray for healing of all those chronically and seriously ill; day to advocate for adequate health care for all. [Day the World Health Organization (W.H.O.) was founded in 1948.] [For information on World Health Day, see World Health Organization website.] [For information on the World Health Organization, see World Health Organization website.]

* 4/12 (3:21 p.m. EDT): New Moon.

* 4/12 eve to 4/13 eve: Feast of Old Greek Goddess Hekate, who guides all through transitions and crisis. [Elaphebolion last day]

* 4/13 eve to 4/14 eve: Mounikhion Noumenia--Old Greek festival honoring all the Gods and Goddesses. Flutes were played; prayers were said; offerings of barley, olive oil, incense, and food were burned in an offering hearth; and libations of water and wine were made. [Mounikhion 1]

* 4/14 to 4/25 (Icelandic 4/25, Old Icelandic 4/11): Old Norse Summer Days Feast--Offerings were made to the Deities (particularly Odin, Thor, and Freyr) for success, peace, and plenty. Toasts of mead and ale were made in honor of the Deities. [a/k/a Summer's Day, Sumardag, Sommerdag, Summer Blot, Sumarblot, Sigrblot, Odinblot, Freyjablot, Thorrablot, Sifblot, Freyrblot]

* 4/15 eve to 4/16 eve: Feast of the Charites--Day to honor the Old Greek Goddesses of beneficence. [Mounikhion 3]

* 4/16 eve to 4/17 eve: Feast of Old Greek Goddess Aphrodite--Day to honor peace and compassion. [Mounikhion 4]

* 4/18 eve to 4/19 eve: Feast of Old Greek Goddess Artemis (Roman Diana/Slavic Diwitsa), who represents the feminine in Nature and protects women throughout their lives. Women recognized the transitions in their lives and honored female fertility. [Mounikhion 6]

* 4/20 eve to 4/21 eve: Feast of God Poseidon, Goddess Amphritrite, and all Old Greek Gods and Goddesses of the seas. [Mounikhion 8]

* 4/22: Earth Day--Day to honor the Earth and to meditate on Deity manifesting as Mother Earth. [For information about Earth Day activities, see Earthday Network website; Envirolink website; U.S. E.P.A. website for Earth Day.] [a/k/a International Earth Day, National Earth Day]

* 4/22: Day the world's nations guaranteed asylum to those persecuted in their homelands on account of their ethnicity, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a particular social group (1954). [Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees: signed 7/28/1951; entered into force 4/22/1954.] [Text of Convention] [For more information, see United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (U.N.H.C.R) website; Human Rights Watch website.]

* 4/26 (11:00 p.m. EDT): Full Moon (Flower/Corn-Planting Moon). [a/k/a Taurus Full Moon]

* 4/28 eve to 4/29 eve: Mounikhia--Festival of Old Greek Goddess Artemis (Roman Diana/Slavic Diwitsa), honoring Her as the Moon. [Mounikhion 16]

* 4/28 eve to 5/3 eve: Floralia--Old Roman festival devoted to Flora, Goddess of Flowers. [Roman calendar]

* 4/30 eve to 5/2 eve: Beltaine--Old Celtic/Welsh feast of Blodeuwedd (Goddess of Flowers) and Llew (the Oak King - God of the waxing Sun).

* 4/29: Day production and use of chemical weapons was outlawed world-wide (1997); day to mourn their victims. [Chemical Weapons Convention] [Text of Convention] [26 countries are believed to have current or past chemical weapons programs.] [All should renounce the production, acquisition, and use of chemical weapons, and should demand destruction of all existing weapons.] [For more information, see Wikipedia article on Chemical Warfare. See also U.N. Office for Disarmament Affairs (U.N.O.D.A.) website; Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (O.P.C.W.) webpage; Federation of American Scientists (F.A.S.) Biological and Chemical Weapons Main Page.]

* 4/30 eve to 5/5 eve: Mid-Spring/May Day/Walpurgis--Celebrates sacred love and the flowering vegetation by gathering flowers and dancing around a Maypole. [a/k/a Old European cross-quarter day, Neo-Pagan cross-quarter day, Wiccan cross-quarter day, Mid-Spring Sabbat]

* 5/1 to 5/31: May originally dedicated to Old Roman Goddess Maia; later dedicated to Christian Lady Maria - Co-Redemptrix, Mediatrix, and Advocate.

* 5/2: National Day of Prayer--Day to pray for freedom of expression, freedom of religion, and separation of church and state throughout the world. [Freedom of expression, freedom of religion, and separation of religion and government is guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution's First Amendment. For text and information on the First Amendment, see Cornell University's Legal Information Institute website. For domestic organizations that advocate for freedom of religion, see Americans United for Separation of Church and State website; American Civil Liberty Union website. For information on religious freedom in countries around the world, see U.S. State Department's International Religious Freedom Report; Oslo Coalition on Freedom of Religion or Belief website.]

* 5/9: Day the world's nations committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, which are causing climate change (1992); day to mourn the failure to reduce these emissions. [Due to these emissions, the planet has already started to experience the impacts of climate change: increased extremes of summer dryness (heat waves, droughts, and wildfires) and winter wetness (flooding); an increase in extreme weather (hurricanes and tornados); an increase of sea level (loss of coastline and loss of fresh water); a decrease in glaciers and polar ice caps; an increase in volcanic eruptions and earthquakes; loss of human habitat; loss of food availability (increase in food costs); and loss of plant and animal species (on land, in the oceans, and on the ice caps).] [Framework Convention on Climate Change: adopted 5/9/1992; signed 6/4/1992; entered into force 3/21/1994.] [Text of Convention] [The Kyoto Protocol, which includes mandatory reduction goals, was adopted by 180 nations 12/11/1997, signed 3/16/1998, but is not yet in force.] [Text of Protocol] [The U.S. has refused to ratify the Protocol. The U.S. is the biggest polluter on the planet. 25% of the planet's carbon dioxide emissions is emitted by the U.S.] [For more information, see U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change website; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change website; Center for International Environmental Law website; Greenpeace website; EarthJustice website; Columbia University website on Assessments of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change in Multiple Regions and Sectors. See also Wikipedia article on the Kyoto Protocol.] [All should demand universal observance of practices that effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions.]

* 5/12 (6:45 a.m. EDT): New Moon.

* 5/13 eve to 5/14 eve: Thargelion Noumenia--Old Greek festival honoring all the Gods and Goddesses. Flutes were played; prayers were said; offerings of barley, olive oil, incense, and food were burned in an offering hearth; and libations of water and wine were made. [Thargelion 1]

* 5/16 eve to 5/17 eve: Feast of Old Greek Deities Aphrodite and Eros--Day to honor love and passion. [Thargelion 4]

* 5/17 eve to 5/19 eve: Thargelia--Festival honoring Old Greek Goddess Artemis and God Apollo in which the community was purified. [See Greek Ethics inscribed on the Temple of Apollo at Delphi.] [Thargelion 6-7]

* 5/18: Feast of Old Greek God Pan, who represents the masculine in Nature and protects men throughout their lives. Men recognized the transitions in their lives and honored male fertility. [Roman calendar]

* 5/19: Old Celtic/Irish feast in which sacred healing wells and springs were adorned with flowers in honor of Goddess Brigid, daughter of Mother Goddess Danu and Father God Dagda. The Celts also threw offerings into the wells and springs.

* 5/22: Biological Diversity Day--Day to recognize that the survival of humanity is dependent on the survival of the many diverse species on the Earth: The extinction of other species will bring about our own extinction. [There has been a 40% loss of species between 1970 and 2000 due to habitat destruction, over-harvesting, and pollution. Our unsustainable consumption exceeds the biological capacity of the Earth by about 20%.] [See U.N. website on International Day for Biological Diversity.] [And see the Convention on Biological Diversity: signed 6/5/1992; entered into force 12/29/1993.] [Text of Convention] [And see the Convention on Biological Diversity website.] [The Convention on Biological Diversity was contracted to ensure conservation of biodiversity, sustainable use of biodiversity, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources.] [For more information, see Center for International Environmental Law website.] [All should demand universal observance of practices that effectively preserve all species of life, and should demand an end to habitat destruction, over-harvesting, and pollution of all kinds.] [a/k/a International Day for Biological Diversity, World Biological Diversity Day, Biodiversity Day]

* 5/26 (7:51 a.m. EDT): Full Moon (Rose/Berry Moon). [a/k/a Gemini Full Moon]

* 6/1 to 6/30: June dedicated to Old Roman Goddess Juno - partner of Jove (God of Happiness), protector of marriage and family, and punisher of abusive and adulterous spouses.

* 6/7 to 6/15: Vestalia--Old Roman festival honoring Goddess Vesta (Greek Hestia). Women made food offerings at the sacred hearths of home and temple. [Roman calendar]

* 6/10 (7:46 p.m. EDT): New Moon.

* 6/10 eve: Old European feast of the Triple Goddess (Goddess of the Moon and the Seasons), marking the transformation of the Virgin into the Mother.

* 6/11 eve to 6/12 eve: Skirophorion Noumenia--Old Greek festival honoring all the Gods and Goddesses. Flutes were played; prayers were said; offerings of barley, olive oil, incense, and food were burned in an offering hearth; and libations of water and wine were made. [Skirophorion 1]

* 6/13 eve to 6/14 eve: Feast of Old Greek Goddess Athena - as protector and defender. [Skirophorion 3]

* 6/14 eve to 6/15 eve: Feast of Old Greek Deities Aphrodite and Hermes--Day to honor the divine feminine and divine masculine in harmony. [Skirophorion 4]

* 6/17: Day to celebrate Starhawk's work in reclaiming the Goddess and raising Goddess-consciousness. She teaches an eco-egalitarian form of Wicca. Wiccans advocate for environmental protection and gender equality out of reverence for Goddess, who controls, and is manifested in, Nature. [The Wiccan rede is: Do what you will, but harm none.]

* 6/21 (9:24 a.m. EDT): Summer Solstice--Marks the beginning of Summer and the longest day and shortest night of the year; celebration of the light with dancing around a bonfire. [a/k/a Old European turning-of-the-season day, Neo-Pagan turning-of-the-season day, Wiccan turning-of-the-season day, Summer Sabbat]

* 6/21: Old Slavic Kupala--Goddess Morana/Lada and God Jarilo/Lado marry, bringing peace and ensuring a good harvest. Celebrated with ritual bathing, feasting, dancing around bonfires, and coupling. [a/k/a Noc Kupaly, Sobotka]

* 6/24 (5:42 p.m. EDT): Full Moon (Red/Mother Moon). [a/k/a Cancer Full Moon]

* 6/26: Day torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment were outlawed world-wide (1987); day to mourn their continued existence. [Torture is an illegal, immoral, and ineffective means of interrogation and punishment. All officials have a legal duty and moral obligation to refuse an order to commit torture and to prevent it from occurring. Anyone who attempts, conspires, or commits torture is legally culpable. All acts of torture should be investigated, prosecuted, and punished. Neither war nor civil strife nor emergency justifies torture.] [Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment: adopted 12/10/1984; signed 2/4/1985; entered into force 6/26/1987.] [Text of Convention] [The Committee Against Torture monitors implementation of the Convention. For more information, see U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights website; Human Rights Watch website.] [Article 5 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Article 7 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) also guarantee freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.] [See U.N. website on Torture Victims' Day.] [All should condemn torture, and should demand an end to the use of torture - of anyone for any purpose.] [a/k/a International Day in Support of Victims of Torture]

* 7/1: Day the world's nations committed to stop proliferation of nuclear weapons (1968); vigil to protest the production and use of all nuclear weapons world-wide. [Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons] [Text of Convention] [The U.S. used 2 atomic bombs on Japan in 8/1945: over 270,000 civilians died from the bombs and radiation. The original nuclear powers (including the U.S.) have failed to destroy their nuclear weapons in spite of the Treaty's requirement that they work towards disarmament. 8 countries are known to currently possess nuclear weapons, and other countries are attempting to develop or acquire them, in spite of the Treaty's prohibition.] [All should renounce the production, acquisition, and use of nuclear weapons, and should demand destruction of all existing weapons.] [For more information, see Wikipedia article on Nuclear Warfare. See also U.N. Office for Disarmament Affairs (U.N.O.D.A.) website; International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.) website.]

* 7/1: Day endangered species became internationally protected (1975); day to celebrate all the world's creatures. [Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora a/k/a C.I.T.E.S.: signed/adopted 3/3/1973; entered into force 7/1/1975.] [Text of Convention] [For more information, see U.N. Environment Programme C.I.T.E.S. website; World Wildlife Fund (W.W.F.) website; Endangered Species Coalition website; National Wildlife Federation website; Defenders of Wildlife website; EarthJustice website; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website.]

* 7/2: Day discrimination on the basis of ethnicity, gender, and religion was prohibited in public accommodations, employment, and education (1964). [The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson.] [Pub. L. 88-352, 78 Stat. 241, 42 U.S.C. 2000a et seq.] [Text of statute] [Title II prohibits discrimination in public accommodations, Title III and Title VI prohibit discrimination by local governments, Title IV and Title IX prohibit discrimination in education, and Title VII prohibits discrimination in employment.] [For information on fighting discrimination based on "race" and "color", see U.S. E.E.O.C. website, and for information on fighting discrimination based on national origin, see U.S. E.E.O.C. website. For information on fighting discrimination based on gender (including sexual harassment), see U.S. E.E.O.C. website. For information on fighting discrimination based on religion, see U.S. E.E.O.C. website.]

* 7/10 (6:26 a.m. EDT): New Moon.

* 7/10 eve to 7/11 eve: Feast of Old Greek Goddess Hekate, who guides all through transitions and crisis. [Skirophorion last day]

* 7/11 eve to 7/12 eve: Hekatombaion Noumenia/Old Athenian New Year--Old Greek festival honoring all the Gods and Goddesses. Flutes were played; prayers were said; offerings of barley, olive oil, incense, and food were burned in an offering hearth; and libations of water and wine were made. [Hekatombaion 1]

* 7/13 eve to 7/14 eve: Feast of the Charites--Day to honor the Old Greek Goddesses of beneficence. [Hekatombaion 3]

* 7/14 eve to 7/15 eve: Feast of Old Greek Goddess Aphrodite--Day to honor peace and compassion. [a/k/a Aphrodesia] [Hekatombaion 4]

* 714 to 7/25 (Icelandic 7/25, Old Icelandic 7/11): Old Norse/Icelandic Mid-Summer Althingi--Community gathering for democratic decision making. Forseti and Tyr, Gods of Justice and Self-Sacrifice, were honored. Toasts of mead and ale were made in honor of the Deities. [See Norse Nine Noble Virtues] [a/k/a Mid-Summer Blot, Midsumar, Midsumardag, Midsommerdag, Forsetiblot, Tyrblot, Almannathing, Althing]

* 7/20: Old Slavic festival of God Perun (the Thunderer). He fought God Veles (the Dragon) over the affections of Goddess Solntse (the Sun), by throwing lightning bolts from the top of the World Tree.

* 7/24 (5:07 a.m. EDT): Full Moon (Grain-Harvest Moon). [a/k/a Leo Full Moon]

* 7/26: Birthday of Dr. Carl Gustav Jung (1875), founder of archetypal psychology, which explores universal concepts of Deity and their relation to the individual psyche. [Death day 6/6/1961]

* 7/26 eve to 7/27 eve: Synoikia--Old Greek festival celebrating the peaceful cooperation of states. Offerings were made to Aphrodite and Eirene, Goddesses of friendship and peace. [Hekatombaion 16]

* 7/31 eve to 8/2 eve: Lughnasadh--Old Celtic/Irish Feast of Goddess Tailtiu and God Lugh (Deities of Sustenance and Light). The Celts would throw seven sacred woods into a fire in honor of the Gods and Goddesses.

* 7/31 eve to 8/6 eve: Mid-Summer/First Harvest/Lammas--Festival of thanksgiving for the first of the grain harvest; celebrated by offering the first fruits of the grain harvest and prayers for sustenance for all. [a/k/a Old European cross-quarter day, Neo-Pagan cross-quarter day, Wiccan cross-quarter day, Mid-Summer Sabbat]

* 8/2 eve to 8/8 eve: Panathenaea--Old Greek festival of Goddess Athena - as daughter of Wisdom (Goddess Metis) and font of reason. [Hekatombaion 23-28]

* 8/7: Gaia Consciousness Day--Day to meditate on Mother Earth as a living planet. [Anniversary of the first photograph of Earth from Space taken on 8/7/1959.] [For views of Earth from space, see the NSSDC Photo Gallery; Solar Views website.]

* 8/8 (3:15 p.m. EDT): New Moon.

* 8/9 eve to 8/10 eve: Metageitnion Noumenia--Old Greek festival honoring all the Gods and Goddesses. Flutes were played; prayers were said; offerings of barley, olive oil, incense, and food were burned in an offering hearth; and libations of water and wine were made. [Metageitnion 1]

* 8/12 eve to 8/13 eve: Feast of Old Greek Deities Aphrodite and Eros--Day to honor love and passion. [Metageitnion 4]

* 8/14 eve to 8/15 eve: Feast of Old Greek Goddess Artemis (Roman Diana/Slavic Diwitsa) - as defender of rights and liberties, and punisher of rapists and oppressors. [Metageitnion 6]

* 8/19: Vinalia--Old Roman festival of thanksgiving for the first of the grape harvest; celebrated by offering the first fruits of the grape harvest and prayers for sustenance for all. [Roman calendar]

* 8/20 eve to 8/21 eve: Old Greek festival honoring Athena Polias and Zeus Polios as protectors of city and state. [Metageitnion 12]

* 8/22 (6:29 p.m. EDT): Full Moon (Thunder Moon). [a/k/a Second Leo Full Moon a/k/a Zodiac
Blue Moon a/k/a Seasonal Blue Moon]

* 8/23: Feast of the Furies--honoring Nemesis and the Erinyes, the Old Greek Goddesses who punish murderers, abusers, and exploiters of others. [Roman calendar]

* 8/25: Old Roman festival of Goddess Ops, Lady of the Cornucopia, Bounty of the Harvest, and Sustainer of Life. [Roman calendar]

* 8/28: Opening of the Second World Parliament of Religions (1993), attended by members of all the world's religions. A Global Ethic was adopted that condemns hatred, aggression, oppression, and environmental abuses committed in the name of religion. [Text of Global Ethic] [See also website for the Parliament of the World's Religions.]

* 9/3: Day gender discrimination was outlawed world-wide (1981); day to mourn all manifestations of sexism. [Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women: adopted by U.N. General Assembly 12/18/1979; signed 3/1/1980; entered into force 9/3/1981.] [Text of Convention] [The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) monitors implementation of the Convention. For more information, see WomenWatch: United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women website; Feminist Majority Foundation website; Human Rights Watch website.] [Article 2 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Article 2 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) also prohibit discrimination on account of gender.]

* 9/6 (11:10 p.m. EDT): New Moon.

* 9/7 eve to 9/8 eve: Boedromion Noumenia--Old Greek festival honoring all the Gods and Goddesses. Flutes were played; prayers were said; offerings of barley, olive oil, incense, and food were burned in an offering hearth; and libations of water and wine were made. [Boedromion 1]

* 9/9 eve to 9/10 eve: Feast of Old Greek Goddess Athena - as protector and defender. [Boedromion 3]

* 9/10 eve to 9/11 eve: Feast of Old Greek Deities Aphrodite and Hermes--Day to honor the divine feminine and divine masculine in harmony. [Boedromion 4]

* 9/11 eve to 9/12 eve: Genesia--Old Greek festival in which offerings were made for the dead. [Boedromion 5]

* 9/12 eve to 9/13 eve: Feast of Old Greek Goddess Artemis (Roman Diana/Slavic Diwitsa) - as the huntress, destroyer of life. [Boedromion 6]

* 9/18 eve to 9/19 eve: Demokratia--Old Greek festival celebrating democracy, constitutional government, and justice under law. Zeus Agoraios, Athena Agoraias, and Themis were honored. [Boedromion 12]

* 9/19 eve to 9/28 eve: Greater Eleusinian Mysteries--Old Greek festival recalling Goddess Demeter's search for Her missing daughter. Devotees fasted, ritually bathed in the sea, processed by torch-light to the temple, made ritual offerings, and danced. They honored Demeter (as Mother Nature), Goddess Kore (as the harvested grain), and God Dionysos (as the harvested grape) for bringing life, death, and rebirth. [Boedromion 13-21]

* 9/21 (9:59 a.m. EDT): Full Moon (Harvest Moon). [a/k/a Virgo Full Moon]

* 9/21: International Day of Peace--Day to demonstrate for peace with justice throughout the world. [Peace can be realized where there is recognition of sovereignty/autonomy, compliance with just law, respectful behavior, responsible sharing of resources, cooperation to attain common goals, and reasonable compromise to enable all to meet lawful goals.] [See International Day of Peace website; International Day of Peace Vigil website.]

* 9/23 (12:55 a.m. EDT): Autumn Equinox--Marks the beginning of Autumn and point of equal daylight and darkness; celebrates the bounty of Mother Earth with feasting and aiding those in need. [a/k/a Old European turning-of-the-season day, Neo-Pagan turning-of-the-season day, Wiccan turning-of-the-season day, Autumn Sabbat]

* 9/23: Old Slavic Dozhinki--At the end of the grain harvest, God Jarilo/Lado betrays Goddess Morana/Lada, and he returns to the realm of the dead. Morana's anger and sadness causes the world to become dark, cold, and dead. As a God manifested in the grain, Jarilo's death is recognized with the last of the harvest. [a/k/a Dozynki]

* 10/3 eve to 10/4 eve: Old Greek festival honoring Gaia and the Nymphs (the male and female Spirits of Nature). [Boedromion 27]

* 10/6 (7:18 a.m. EDT): New Moon.

* 10/6 eve: Old European feast of the Triple Goddess (Goddess of the Moon and the Seasons), marking the transformation of the Mother into the Crone.

* 10/6 eve to 10/7 eve: Feast of Old Greek Goddess Hekate, who guides all through transitions and crisis. [Boedromion last day]

* 10/7 eve to 10/8 eve: Pyanepsion Noumenia--Old Greek festival honoring all the Gods and Goddesses. Flutes were played; prayers were said; offerings of barley, olive oil, incense, and food were burned in an offering hearth; and libations of water and wine were made. [Pyanepsion 1]

* 10/9 eve to 10/10 eve: Feast of the Charites--Day to honor the Old Greek Goddesses of beneficence. [Pyanepsion 3]

* 10/10 eve to 10/11 eve: Feast of Old Greek Goddess Aphrodite--Day to honor peace and compassion. [Pyanepsion 4]

* 10/12 eve to 10/13 eve: Proerosia--Old Greek festival in which fruits of all the harvest were offered to Goddess Demeter. [Pyanepsion 6]

* 10/14 to 10/28 (Icelandic 10/26, Old Icelandic 10/12): Old Norse Winter Nights Feast--The ancestors were remembered and offerings were made to the Deities (particularly Freyja, the Disir, and the Norns) to survive the season. Toasts of mead, ale, and cider were made in honor of the Deities. [a/k/a Veturnaetur, Winter's Day, Winter Blot, Vetrarblot, Vinternalsblot, Freyjablot, Nornorblot, Disirblot, Disablot]

* 10/17 eve to 10/20 eve: Thesmophoria--Old Greek festival commemorating the transformation of Goddess Kore (Queen of the Living) into Persephone (Queen of the Dead), when She eloped to Elysium with Her partner, God Dionysos/Plouton, accompanied by Goddess Hekate and spirits of the dead. At Eleusis, Dionysos was considered the life aspect and Plouton the death aspect of the same Deity, just as Kore was considered the life aspect and Persephone the death aspect of the same Deity. Dionysos was wild, and subject to excess drinking, dancing, and sex. While Kore, Gaia, Zeus, and Helios considered Him to be a marital prize, Demeter thought otherwise. Consequently, She mourned their union by striking the Earth with famine. [Pyanepsion 11-13]

* 10/18: Day the Clean Water Act was enacted (1972); day to give thanks for the water we drink. [Pub. L. 92-500, 86 Stat. 896, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.] [Text of statute] [For information on water pollution, see U.S. E.P.A. website; Clean Water America Alliance website; Clean Water Action website; EarthJustice website ; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website; American Rivers website.]

* 10/21 (3:20 a.m. EDT): Full Moon (Indigo/Wise-Crone Moon). [a/k/a Libra Full Moon]

* 10/21: Day military attacks on civilians were outlawed world-wide (1950); day to mourn all civilian victims of war. [All soldiers have a legal duty and a moral obligation to refuse an order to attack a noncombatant. Anyone who plans, orders, or carries out such an act is legally culpable. All attacks on noncombatants should be investigated, prosecuted, and punished.] [Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War a/k/a Fourth Geneva Convention: signed 8/12/1949; entered into force 10/21/1950.] [Text of Convention] [See Wikipedia article on Fourth Geneva Convention.] [All should condemn all attacks on noncombatants, and should demand an end to them.]

* 10/25 eve to 10/28 eve: Apaturia--Old Greek festival in which newcomers and children were welcomed into the community. [Pyanepsion 19-21]

* 10/28 to 11/3: Isia--Old Romano-Egyptian festival recalling Set (God of Destruction) killing God Osiris; Goddess Isis mourning Him, resurrecting Him, and conceiving God Horus with Him; and Osiris becoming Lord of Amenta, realm of the dead. He weighs souls against the Feather of Truth on Goddess Maat's Scale of Justice, but defers to Isis for those who fail the test. [Roman calendar]

* 10/31: Day to mourn the women tortured and killed as "witches" because of their independence, wealth, wisdom, or religion.

* 10/31 eve to 11/2 eve: Samhain--Old Celtic/Welsh New Year and feast of Cerridwen (Goddess of Death) and Beli (the Holly King - God of the Waning Sun).

* 10/31 eve to 11/6 eve: Mid-Autumn/Day of the Dead/Hallowmas--Festival marking the transformation of life to death - the end of the agricultural year, departure of migrating and hibernating animals, and decay and death of vegetal and animal life. Observed by remembering departed ancestors and contemplating one's own mortality. [a/k/a Old European cross-quarter day, Neo-Pagan cross-quarter day, Wiccan cross-quarter day, Mid-Autumn Sabbat]

* 11/1: World Community Day--Day for celebrating the unity behind diversity and remembering we are all one people - all children of the one universal Deity of many names and aspects.

* 11/4 (3:34 p.m. EST): New Moon.

* 11/4 eve to 11/5 eve: Khalkeia--Old Greek festival honoring Goddess Athena and God Hephaistos for their gifts of crafts and technology. [a/k/a Hephaistia] [Pyanepsion 28]

* 11/5 eve to 11/6 eve: Maimakterion Noumenia--Old Greek festival honoring all the Gods and Goddesses. Flutes were played; prayers were said; offerings of barley, olive oil, incense, and food were burned in an offering hearth; and libations of water and wine were made. [Maimakterion 1]

* 11/8 eve to 11/9 eve: Feast of Old Greek Deities Aphrodite and Eros--Day to honor love and passion. [Maimakterion 4]

* 11/11 to 11/17: Old Anglo-Teutonic fast marking Hod (God of Darkness) unintentionally killing Balder (God of Light), and his true love Nanna (Goddess of Flowers) dying of a broken heart. The dead were honored.

* 11/16: Tolerance Day--Day to promote harmony in diversity through mutual respect and understanding of all, regardless of gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity, religion, culture, language, nationality, or economic status. [Despite international and domestic laws providing for equal rights, freedoms, and protections, members of minority groups are still harassed and discriminated against because of societal intolerance arising from fear and ignorance.] [Intolerance often results from projection of "collective guilt": it is immoral to blame an entire group for the acts of a member unless the entire group empowered the member who acted or endorsed the acts.] [See U.N. website on International Day for Tolerance; Wikipedia article on Declaration of Principles on Tolerance.] [a/k/a International Day for Tolerance]

* 11/19 (8:34 p.m. EST): Full Moon (Wolf/Hunting Moon). [a/k/a Scorpio Full Moon]

* 11/21: Fast for an Abundant World Harvest--Day to fast and commit to action to help prevent deaths from malnourishment world-wide. [For more information, see Oxfam America website.] [a/k/a Fast for a World Harvest]

* 11/28: Thanksgiving Day--Day to give thanks for the abundance of our land and for our food, clothes, shelter, and health.

* 12/1: World AIDS Day--Day to pray for healing of all those suffering with AIDS and HIV. [For information on World AIDS Day, see World AIDS Day website. For information about the global fight against AIDS, see UNAIDS website.]

* 12/4 (2:34 a.m. EST): New Moon.

* 12/5 eve to 12/6 eve: Poseideon Noumenia--Old Greek festival honoring all the Gods and Goddesses. Flutes were played; prayers were said; offerings of barley, olive oil, incense, and food were burned in an offering hearth; and libations of water and wine were made. [Poseideon 1]

* 12/7 eve to 12/8 eve: Feast of Old Greek Goddess Athena - as protector and defender. [Poseideon 3]

* 12/8 eve to 12/9 eve: Feast of Old Greek Deities Aphrodite and Hermes--Day to honor the divine feminine and divine masculine in harmony. [Poseideon 4]

* 12/10: Day the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted, and fundamental rights were recognized world-wide (1948). [The U.N. General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (U.D.H.R.) in Resolution 217 A(III).] [Text of Declaration] [For information on the history of the U.D.H.R., see Franklin & Eleanor Roosevelt Institute website. The U.D.H.R. is generally recognized as binding customary international law: all countries are required to respect the rights within it. In 1966, the concepts of the U.D.H.R. were expanded and drafted into two binding international treaties with enforcement mechanisms. The Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) is enforced by the Human Rights Committee. The Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (Text of Covenant) is enforced by the Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. For more information, see U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights website; Human Rights Watch website; Amnesty International website.] [All should demand universal observance of all rights enumerated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights - for all people.] [a/k/a International Human Rights Day]

* 12/12 eve to 12/13 eve: Feast of God Poseidon, Goddess Amphritrite, and all Old Greek Gods and Goddesses of the seas. [a/k/a Poseidea] [Poseideon 8]

* 12/13: Feast of the Light-bringer--honoring Goddess as Juno Lucina (Old Roman) & Lucia (Old Swedish); merged with the Christian feast of St. Lucia.

* 12/15: Day the Bill of Rights became part of the U.S. Constitution, guaranteeing fundamental rights to all (1791). [Text of Bill of Rights] [For more information about the Bill of Rights and the U.S. Constitution, see U.S. National Archives & Records Administration website and the Bill of Rights Institute website. For information on organizations that advocate for enforcement of rights and liberties in the Bill of Rights, see Center for Constitutional Rights website; American Civil Liberties Union website.] [a/k/a Bill of Rights Day]

* 12/17: Day the Clean Air Act was enacted (1963); day to give thanks for the air we breathe. [Pub. L. 88-206, 77 Stat. 392, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.] [Text of statute] [For information on air pollution, see U.S. E.P.A. website; American Lung Association website; EarthJustice website; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website.]

* 12/17 to 12/23: Saturnalia/Opalia--Old Roman festival honoring God Saturn (the weak Sun) & Goddess Ops (the fallow Earth); celebrated with gift-giving, revelry, and abolishment of all class distinctions. [Roman calendar]

* 12/19 (2:10 p.m. EST): Full Moon (Snow/Fire Moon). [a/k/a Sagittarius Full Moon]

* 12/19 eve to 12/23 eve: Rustic Dionysia--Old Greek festival honoring God Dionysos as patron of drama, poetry, music, and inspiration. Actors performed sacred drama, poets recited hymns, musicians played instruments, singers sang songs, and dancers danced. [Poseideon 15-18]

* 12/21 (8:14 p.m. EST): Winter Solstice/Solar New Year--Marks the beginning of Winter and the shortest day and longest night of the year; celebration of the darkness with dancing near the hearth fire. [a/k/a Old European turning-of-the-season day, Neo-Pagan turning-of-the-season day, Wiccan turning-of-the-season day, Winter Sabbat]

* 12/21 to 12/22: Old European Festival of Evergreen Trees; merged into International Arbor Day. Celebrated by planting trees and hanging wreaths (symbols of eternal life).

* 12/21 to 12/25: Old Romano-Egyptian festival of Goddess Isis giving birth to God Horus. [Roman calendar]

* 12/23 eve to 12/24 eve: Old Greek festival in which offerings were made to the Wind Gods of the eight directions. [Poseideon 19]

* 12/25 to 1/5: Yule--Old Anglo-Teutonic festival honoring Freyr and Freyja (Deities of Fertility) and the newborn Balder (God of Light), son of Frigga and Odin. Celebrated with evergreens, fires, and feasting.

* 12/28: Day the Endangered Species Act was enacted (1973); day to mourn those creatures already extinct. [Pub. L. 93-205, 87 Stat. 884, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.] [Text of statute] [For information on endangered species preservation, see U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service website; Endangered Species Coalition website; National Wildlife Federation website; Defenders of Wildlife website; EarthJustice website; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website.]

* 12/31: Feast of Father Time (Old Roman Saturn), who ultimately overcomes us all.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

[Many religions were practiced in Europe prior to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. All were grounded in Nature and its rhythms, and all espoused ethical conduct. The holidays of these religions are generically referred to as Pagan holidays, Old European holidays, and Old Religion holidays.]

[Most Old Greek holidays (ancient Greek holidays or Hellenic holidays) in this calendar are based on the ancient Macedonian Greek calendar, a lunar calendar (also referred to as the ancient Greek calendar or Hellenic calendar). The Old Greek months began at the first visibility of the New Moon. (This calendar uses U.S. Eastern Time as the point of reference for the lunar Greek dates in this calendar.) A few Old Greek holidays are based on the fixed ancient Roman calendar.]

[All Old Roman holidays (ancient Roman holidays) and Romano-Egyptian holidays in this calendar are based on the ancient Roman calendar. Roman calendar dates do not change.]

[The Old Celtic holidays (Druid holidays or Wiccan holidays) and Old Slavic holidays (ancient Slavic holidays, Old Russian holidays, or Old Polish holidays) are based on the traditional 8-part solar year. (This is also referred to as the Celtic calendar or Wiccan calendar.) Holidays were celebrated at the Winter Solstice, Summer Solstice, Spring Equinox, Fall Equinox, and the 4 cross-quarter days that fell at the midpoint between them.] 

[The Old Norse holidays (Asatru holidays or Heathen holidays) are based on the 2-part Norse/Icelandic year. (This is referred to as the Norse calendar or Heathen calendar.) The onset of the Norse Summer and Winter were celebrated as well as Mid-Summer and Mid-Winter. See Snorri Sturluson's Ynglinga Saga (chapter 8), Prose Edda (chapter 59), Saga of Olaf the Holy (chapter 77), Saga of Olaf Tryggvason (chapter 74), Gisli Sursson's Saga (chapter 15), Egils Saga & Viga-Glums Saga. (The Norse dates are fixed dates based on the Primstav--the Norse stick calendar/clog almanac. The Icelandic dates are shifting dates based on Icelandic law, and have been adjusted for the Gregorian calendar. The Old Icelandic dates reflect the Julian calendar.) The Old Anglo-Teutonic holidays (Anglo-Saxon holidays) are the primary feasts in the 6-part German year. (Each part is a 60-day tide.)]

[The Old European holidays of the Triple Goddess are based on the traditional 3-season lunisolar year. And the Old European holidays of the Vegetation God are based on the traditional 4-part solar year (divided at the solstices and equinoxes).]

[The Old Religions of Europe are currently being practiced as: Old European religion, Old European Spirituality, Paganism, Pagan religion, Pagan Spirituality, Gaia religion, Pantheism, Panentheism, Nature Spirituality, Nature-based Spirituality, Earth-Centered Spirituality, Goddess religion, Goddess Spirituality, Women's Spirituality, Feminist Spirituality, Eco-Feminist Spirituality, Wicca, Wiccan religion, Wiccan Spirituality, Celtic religion, Celtic Spirituality, Celtic Paganism, Fairy faith, Druidism, Druid religion, Norse religion, Norse Spirituality, Norse Paganism, Anglo-Saxon religion, Anglo-Saxon Spirituality, Anglo-Saxon Paganism, Anglo-Teutonic religion, Anglo-Teutonic Spirituality, Anglo-Teutonic Paganism, Asatru, Norse Heathenism, Heathen religion, ancient Greek religion, Old Greek religion, Greek Spirituality, Greek Paganism, Hellenic religion, Hellenic Spirituality, Hellenic Paganism, Hellenic faith, Hellenism, Hellenismos, ancient Roman religion, Old Roman religion, Religio Romana, Roma Nova, Roman Spirituality, Roman Paganism, Old Slavic religion, Slavic Spirituality, Slavic Paganism, Old Russian religion, Russian Paganism, Old Polish religion, and Polish Paganism.]

[The Pagan calendar is also called the Nature Spirituality calendar, the Nature-based Spirituality calendar, the Earth-centered Spirituality calendar, and the Women's Spirituality calendar.]

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Permission to use and distribute these excerpts is granted for non-commercial purposes, provided the following information is included:

Excerpted from
THE MYSTIC'S WHEEL OF THE YEAR 2002
A Multifaith Calendar Reflecting Eco-Egalitarian Spirituality
© 2001 Marija Miovski
www.WheeloftheYear.com