Year 2004
Calendar
By Tradition...
Jewish - Kabbalah
Holidays - 2004
Christian -
Ecumenical Mysticism /
Wisdom Tradition

Holidays - 2004
Unitarian Universalist
Holidays - 2004
Muslim - Sufi
Holidays - 2004
Baha'i Holidays - 2004
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Hindu Holidays - 2004
Jain & Sikh
Holidays - 2004
Buddhist Holidays - 2004
Taoist & Shinto
Holidays - 2004
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African &
Middle-Eastern
Holidays:
Ancient Egyptian,
Santeria, Zoroastrian - 2004
Native American
(Iroquois, Navajo
& Pueblo)
& Meso American
(Inca, Mayan & Aztec)
Holidays - 2004
Pagan Holidays:
Old Religions of Europe
(Greek, Roman, Slavic,
Celtic, Anglo-Teutonic
& Norse) - 2004
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Deep Ecology /
Environmentalist
Dates - 2004
Social Justice /
Human Rights /
Feminist
Dates - 2004
Peace /
Disarmament
Dates - 2004
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Solar & Lunar Cycles,
Eclipses & Helions - 2004
Meteor Showers - 2004
Visible Planets - 2004
Astrological Periods - 2004
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Experiential Meditations
(for lunar cycles

throughout the year)
Empowering Meditations
Action Offerings
(to help the environment 
& further social justice)
Art as Meditation
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2004 African & Middle-Eastern Holidays:
Ancient Egyptian, Santeria, Zoroastrian

* 12/31 to 1/4: Zoroastrian celebration of Divine Spirit Vohu Manah (Good Intent), creator and protector of animals. Vohu Manah is one of seven male and female divine emanations of Deity Ahura Mazda. [a/k/a Maidhyairya, Mid-Winter] [Fasli calendar]

* 1/1: World Peace Day--Day to meditate for peace throughout the world. [Universal Hour of Peace: 7:00-8:00 a.m. EST.]

* 1/1: Day the Emancipation Proclamation went into effect freeing Confederate slaves (1863); day to mourn African victims of slavery and racism (past and present), make peace, and celebrate empowerment of African Americans. [President Abraham Lincoln made the Emancipation Proclamation on 9/22/1862.] [Text of Emancipation Proclamation] [While some Europeans (with the help of Africans) enslaved Africans in the past, not all Europeans at the time approved of slavery or the slave trade. Some actively opposed it. And no ethnic European alive today participated in slavery or the slave trade. While it is appropriate to expect atonement from the governments of the countries that participated, it is immoral to blame all ethnic Europeans today for the evil committed by some Europeans in the past.]

* 1/4: Day ethnic discrimination was outlawed world-wide (1969); day to mourn all manifestations of racism. [Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination: signed/adopted 3/7/1966; entered into force 1/4/1969.] [Text of Convention] [The Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) monitors implementation of the Convention. For more information, see Human Rights Watch website.] [Article 2 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Article 2 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) also prohibit discrimination on account of race.] [The U.N. has designated 3/21 to 3/27 Week of Solidarity with the Peoples Struggling against Racism and Racial Discrimination.]

* 1/12: Day genocide was outlawed world-wide (1951); day to mourn all victims of genocide. [Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide: signed/adopted 12/9/1948; entered into force 1/12/1951.] [Text of Convention] [For more information, see Prevent Genocide International website.] [All should condemn all past genocides and, to prevent future genocides, should demand an end to persecution on account of any nationality, ethnicity, "race" or religion.]

* 1/15: Feast of the Black Christ. [Originated in Guatemala and celebrated by Catholics in Central America and the Caribbean and immigrants and African-Americans in the U.S. Pilgrims travel to the Church of the Black Christ of Esquipulas annually during the week leading up to the feast.] [a/k/a Feast of Christ of Esquipulas, Fiesta Del Senor de Esquipulas]

* 1/15 (Obs. 1/19): Birthday of Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929), Baptist preacher and non-violent advocate for the rights of African Americans. [Death day 4/4/1968]

* 1/15 to 1/17 (A 2/25 to 2/27): Raising Heaven--Old Egyptian Festival honoring the unseen Neteru Amen and Amenet. Egyptians perceived the many Gods and Goddesses (Neteru) to be aspects of the one God-Goddess Neter-Neteret. [Kemetic calendar (leap year)] [Alexandrian calendar 2/25 to 2/27 (leap year)] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Rekehwer day 30 to Rekehnedjes day 2]

* 1/16 (A 2/26): Beginning of Old Egyptian Proyet/Emergence month of Rekehnedjes/Phamenoth. Priests and priestesses made offerings of incense, holy water, and perfumed oils to the Neteru (Gods and Goddesses). [Kemetic calendar (leap year)] [Alexandrian calendar 2/26 (leap year)] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Rekehnedjes day 1] 

* 1/16 (A 2/26): Old Egyptian feast of Neter Ptah, God who inspires creativity and the arts. [Kemetic calendar (leap year)] [Alexandrian calendar 2/26 (leap year)] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Rekehnedjes day 1]

* 1/17: Yoruba/Santeria feast of Ogun, Orisha of Strength, Endurance, and Perseverance. Yorubas/Santeros believe the Orishas are emanations and messengers of the one Deity, Olodumare.

* 1/18: World Religions Day--Day to contemplate all religions as different paths to the one universal Deity of many names and aspects.

* 1/26: Vigil for peace, justice, and respect for the human rights of all in Somalia. [The Somali civil war has been ongoing since the socialist government of Siad Barre was ousted on 1/26/1991. (Barre had ruled since a 10/21/1969 military coup d'etat.) Somaliland declared its independence on 5/18/1991 and has been autonomous since. Multiple rebel groups vied for power over the remainder of Somalia. The U.N.'s peacekeeping mission from 1992-1995 attempted to provide order and humanitarian relief, but was unsuccessful. On its withdrawal, factions consolidated control over different parts of Somalia. A federal transitional government was formed on 5/5/2000. During the course of the war, many civilians have been killed and displaced.] [See Wikipedia articles on Somali Civil War, Somaliland, and Transitional Federal Government.] [For information on the human rights situation in Somalia, see Human Rights Watch report: Somalia; Amnesty International report: Somalia.]

* 2/1: Day President Abraham Lincoln approved the U.S. Constitution's 13th Amendment, outlawing all slavery (1865). [The 13th Amendment was approved by Congress on 1/31/1865 and, after ratification by the states, was proclaimed in effect on 12/18/1865.] [Text of amendment] [a/k/a National Freedom Day]

* 2/1 to 2/29: Ethnic Equality Month--Time to honor all peoples and their positive traditions; time to meditate on the equality of all peoples, on the respect due to them, and on God-Goddess manifesting as African, Asian, Oceanic, Middle Eastern, European, Hispanic, and Native American. [Expands idea of African-American History Month a/k/a Black History Month.]

* 2/2: Yoruba/Santeria feast of Oya, Orisha of Death and Rebirth.

* 2/6: Day to mourn all the women and children who have been subjected to female genital mutilation. [Female genital mutilation is also known as "F.G.M." and "female circumcision". F.G.M. results in severe pain, bleeding, disfigurement, urine retention, recurrent infections, painful menstruation, sexual dysfunction, infertility, and complications in childbirth.] [International Day of Zero Tolerance of Female Genital Mutilation and Cutting established on 2/6/2003 by the Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children (I.A.C.).] [See Gender Equity in Islam (which indicates F.G.M. predates Islam, is not mentioned in the Qur'an, and is not mandated by any hadith).] [For more information about F.G.M., see Female Genital and Sexual Mutilation - Bibliography.]

* 2/7: Birthday of Frederick Douglass (1817), non-violent advocate for the rights of African Americans. [Death day 2/20/1895]

* 2/15 (A 3/27): Beginning of Old Egyptian Proyet/Emergence month of Paenrenenutet/Pharmouthi, dedicated to Neteret Renenutet and Neter Nepri. Priests and priestesses read hymns of praise to the Neteru (Gods and Goddesses). [Kemetic calendar (leap year)] [Alexandrian calendar 3/27] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Paenrenenutet day 1]

* 2/15: Birthday of Susan B. Anthony (1820), non-violent advocate for the rights of women and African Americans. [a/k/a Susan B. Anthony Day] [Death day 3/13/1906]

* 2/18 to 2/19 (A 3/30 to 3/31): Old Egyptian festival of Neteret Bastet, Cat Goddess who protects the home and fosters domestic harmony. [Kemetic calendar (leap year)] [Alexandrian calendar 3/30 to 3/31] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Paenrenenutet days 4-5]

* 3/1: Day the production and use of landmines was outlawed world-wide (1999); day to mourn their victims. [Protocol on Prohibition or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps, and Other Devices a/k/a Convention on Landmines a/k/a Mine Ban Treaty, amending the 1980 Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects: Treaty signed/adopted 10/10/1980; entered into force 12/2/1983; Protocol signed 12/3/1997; entered into force 3/1/1999.] [Text of Convention] [Landmines maim and kill civilians, including children. Those that survive endure a lifetime of hardship.] [All should renounce the production and use of landmines, and should demand removal and destruction of all existing landmines.] [For more information, see International Campaign to Ban Landmines (I.C.B.L.) website; Landmine Monitor website; Adopt a Minefield website.]

* 3/1 to 3/31: Gender Equality Month--Time to honor both genders; time to meditate on the equality of women and men, on the respect due to both women and men, and on Goddess-God manifesting as woman and man. [Expands idea of Women's History Month.]

* 3/8: International Women's Day--Day to mourn victims of gender-based oppression and misogyny (past and present), make peace, and celebrate women's empowerment. [See U.N. website on International Women's Day; A history of International Women's Day.]

* 3/9: Day slavery was outlawed world-wide (1927); day to mourn its continued existence. [Convention to Suppress the Slave Trade and Slavery: signed/adopted 9/25/1926; entered into force 3/9/1927.] [Text of Convention] See also the Protocol Amending the Slavery Convention. [Text of Protocol] [Article 4 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Article 8 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) also guarantee freedom from slavery.] [The U.N. has designated 8/23 International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and its Abolition. The U.N. has designated 12/2 International Day for the Abolition of Slavery.]

* 3/10: Death day of Harriet Tubman (1913), who risked her life to guide slaves to freedom. [Birthday unknown]

* 3/10 to 3/16 (A 4/20 to 4/26): Old Egyptian festival of Neteret Renenutet (Goddess of the Harvest) and Neter Nepri (God of Grain). A harvest offering was made. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 4/20 to 4/26] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Paenrenenutet day 25 to Paenkhons day 1]

* 3/16 (A 4/26): Beginning of Old Egyptian Shomu/Harvest month of Paenkhons/Pakhon. Priests and priestesses made offerings of food and drink to the Neteru (Gods and Goddesses) to ensure that all people had abundant food and drink. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 4/26] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Paenkhons day 1]

* 3/16 to 3/20: Zoroastrian celebration of Divine Spirit Spenta Mainyu (Holy Spirit), creator and protector of humans. [a/k/a Hamaspathmaedaya, All Souls, Parsi Muktad, Irani Farvadigan] [Fasli calendar]

* 3/19: Yoruba/Santeria feast of Osanyin, Orisha of Deciduous Vegetation.

* 3/20 to 3/21: Old Sumerian festival celebrating the return of Dumuzi (God of Life and Death) from the Underworld to be with Inanna (Goddess of Life) for the verdant part of the year.

* 3/21: Naw Ruz--Zoroastrian New Year and celebration of Divine Spirit Asha Vahishta (Righteousness), creator and protector of fire. Zoroastrians worship by making offerings to a sacred fire. [a/k/a No Ruz, Nawroz, Feast of Ahura Mazda, Spring Equinox] [Fasli calendar]

* 3/21: World Forest Day--Day to celebrate the complex living community of trees, plants, birds, and mammals that live in forests world-wide; day to give thanks for forests for cleaning the air of pollution. [Forest once covered 50% of the world. Today, forest covers only 30% of the world. Since 1600, 90% of the original forests that once covered the lower 48 states of the U.S. has been cleared away. Most deforestation of North America, Europe, the Middle East, and Asia occurred before 2000 and has stabilized. Deforestation continues to accelerate in South America and Africa. The rate of world deforestation averaged 5.2 million hectares per year between 2000 and 2010.] [For information about conservation of forests, see American Forests website; Forests.org website; International Union for Conservation of Nature (I.U.C.N.) website; World Wildlife Fund (W.W.F.) website; Greenpeace website. See also Statement of Principles for the Sustainable Management of Forests; Our Forests, Our Future: Summary Report of the World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development.] [All should demand an end to deforestation, and should demand universal observance of sustainable management practices of the world's forests.] [a/k/a World Forestry Day]

* 3/25: Yoruba/Santeria feast of Oshun, Orisha of Passion and Fertility.

* 3/26: Day commemorating the birth of Zoroastrian Prophet Zarathustra (628 BCE). [628-551 BCE: exact dates unknown]

* 3/26: Day production and use of biological weapons was outlawed world-wide (1975); day to mourn their victims. [Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction a/k/a Biological Weapons Convention: signed 4/10/1972; entered into force 3/26/1975.] [Text of Convention] [20 countries are believed to have current or past biological weapons programs.] [All should renounce the production, acquisition, and use of biological weapons, and should demand destruction of all existing weapons.] [For more information, see Wikipedia article on Biological Warfare. See also U.N. Office for Disarmament Affairs (U.N.O.D.A.) website; Federation of American Scientists (F.A.S.) Biological and Chemical Weapons Main Page.]

* 3/30: Day the U.S. Constitution's 15th Amendment went into effect, recognizing the right of all ethnic peoples to vote (1870). [The 15th Amendment was approved by Congress on 2/26/1869 and, after ratification by the states, was proclaimed in effect on 3/30/1870.] [Text of amendment]

* 4/1: Vigil for freedom of religion in Iran. [Shi'a Islam is the official religion. While some other Muslim sects and non-Muslim religions are officially recognized, some are not. Those that are not recognized (particularly Baha'is) and even some that are recognized (particularly Sunni Muslims, Sufi Muslims, Zoroastrians, and evangelical Christians) are discriminated against, harassed, or persecuted. Jews are vilified.] [See U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2003: Iran.] [Articles 2 and 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Articles 2 and 18 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) guarantee freedom of religion and prohibit discrimination on account of religion.] [4/1 is Islamic Republic Day, the day the Iranian people voted in 1979 to become an Islamic Republic.]

* 4/6: Day the Hutus began genocidal massacres of Tutsis in Rwanda (1994); vigil for true peace, justice, and respect for the human rights of all in Africa. [Over 800,000 were killed.] [See U.N. website on  remembrance of the Rwanda genocide.] [For more information, see BBC report; Peace Pledge Union article on the Rwanda Genocide. For information on the human rights situation today, see Human Rights Watch report: Rwanda.]

* 4/7: World Health Day--Day to pray for healing of all those chronically and seriously ill; day to advocate for adequate health care for all. [Day the World Health Organization (W.H.O.) was founded in 1948.] [For information on World Health Day, see World Health Organization website.] [For information on the World Health Organization, see World Health Organization website.]

* 4/15 (A 5/26): Beginning of Old Egyptian Shomu/Harvest month of Khentkhety/Paoni. Priests and priestesses made offerings to the Neteru (Gods and Goddesses) to ensure that there would be good health and long life for all. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 5/26] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Khentkhety day 1] 

* 4/22: Earth Day--Day to honor the Earth and to meditate on Deity manifesting as Mother Earth. [For information about Earth Day activities, see Earthday Network website; Envirolink website; U.S. E.P.A. website for Earth Day.] [a/k/a International Earth Day, National Earth Day]

* 4/22: Day the world's nations guaranteed asylum to those persecuted in their homelands on account of their ethnicity, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a particular social group (1954). [Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees: signed 7/28/1951; entered into force 4/22/1954.] [Text of Convention] [For more information, see United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (U.N.H.C.R.) website; Human Rights Watch website.]

* 4/23: Yoruba/Santeria feast of Ogun, Orisha of Self-reliance and Industrious Labor.

* 4/29: Day production and use of chemical weapons was outlawed world-wide (1997); day to mourn their victims. [Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons a/k/a Chemical Weapons Convention: signed 1/13/1993; entered into force 4/29/1997.] [Text of Convention] [26 countries are believed to have current or past chemical weapons programs.] [All should renounce the production, acquisition, and use of chemical weapons, and should demand destruction of all existing weapons.] [For more information, see Wikipedia article on Chemical Warfare. See also U.N. Office for Disarmament Affairs (U.N.O.D.A.) website; Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (O.P.C.W.) webpage; Federation of American Scientists (F.A.S.) Biological and Chemical Weapons Main Page.]

* 4/30 to 5/4: Zoroastrian celebration of Divine Spirit Khshathra Vairya (Power), creator and protector of the Sky. Zoroastrians worship the one transcendent and immanent Deity Ahura Mazda, who is symbolized by a sacred fire. [a/k/a Maidhyoizaremaya, Mid-Spring] [Fasli calendar]

* 5/6: National Day of Prayer--Day to pray for freedom of expression, freedom of religion, and separation of religion and government throughout the world. [Freedom of expression, freedom of religion, and separation of religion and government is guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution's First Amendment. For text and information on the First Amendment, see Cornell University's Legal Information Institute website; First Amendment Online website; 1st Amendment.com website. For domestic organizations that advocate for freedom of religion, see Americans United for Separation of Church and State website; American Civil Liberty Union website. For information on religious freedom in countries around the world, see U.S. State Department's International Religious Freedom Report; Oslo Coalition on Freedom of Religion or Belief website.]

* 5/9: Day the world's nations committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, which are causing climate change (1992); day to mourn the failure to reduce these emissions. [Due to these emissions, the planet has already started to experience the impacts of climate change: increased extremes of summer dryness (heat waves, droughts, and wildfires) and winter wetness (flooding); an increase in extreme weather (hurricanes and tornados); an increase of sea level (loss of coastline and loss of fresh water); a decrease in glaciers and polar ice caps; an increase in volcanic eruptions and earthquakes; loss of human habitat; loss of food availability (increase in food costs); and loss of plant and animal species (on land, in the oceans, and on the ice caps).] [Framework Convention on Climate Change: adopted 5/9/1992; signed 6/4/1992; entered into force 3/21/1994.] [Text of Convention] [The Kyoto Protocol, which includes mandatory reduction goals, was adopted by 180 nations 12/11/1997, signed 3/16/1998, but is not yet in force.] [Text of Protocol] [The U.S. has refused to ratify the Protocol. The U.S. is the biggest polluter on the planet. 25% of the planet's carbon dioxide emissions is emitted by the U.S.] [For more information, see U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change website; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change website; Center for International Environmental Law website; Greenpeace website; EarthJustice website; Columbia University website on Assessments of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change in Multiple Regions and Sectors. See also Wikipedia article on the Kyoto Protocol.] [All should demand universal observance of practices that effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions.]

* 5/10: Death day of Theodore Parker (1860), Unitarian slavery abolitionist and social justice activist. [Birthday 8/24/1810] [See Wikipedia article on Theodore Parker and UU World article Heretical Prophet. See also Wikipedia articles on Unitarianism; Unitarian Universalism. And see Unitarian Universalist Association website.]

* 5/15 (A 6/25): Beginning of Old Egyptian Shomu/Harvest month of Ipet-hemet/Epip. Priests and priestesses made offerings to the Neteru (Gods and Goddesses) to ensure that there would be love and happiness for all. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 6/25] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Ipet-hemet day 1] 

* 5/15: Yoruba/Santeria feast of Ochossi, Orisha of Animals. Yorubas/Santeros celebrate with drumming, ecstatic dancing, and possession trance.

* 5/17: Day the Supreme Court concluded that ethnic-based segregation of schools violates the Fourteenth Amendment Equal Protection Clause of the U.S. Constitution (1954). [Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)] [Text of case] [Text of Fourteenth Amendment] [Articles 1, 2, and 7 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Articles 2, 3, and 26 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) also recognize the equal rights and freedoms of all and prohibit discrimination.]

* 5/22: Biological Diversity Day--Day to recognize that the survival of humanity is dependent on the survival of the many diverse species on the Earth: The extinction of other species will bring about our own extinction. [There has been a 40% loss of species between 1970 and 2000 due to habitat destruction, over-harvesting, and pollution. Our unsustainable consumption exceeds the biological capacity of the Earth by about 20%.] [See U.N. website on International Day for Biological Diversity.] [And see the Convention on Biological Diversity: signed 6/5/1992; entered into force 12/29/1993.] [Text of Convention] [And see the Convention on Biological Diversity website.] [The Convention on Biological Diversity was contracted to ensure conservation of biodiversity, sustainable use of biodiversity, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources.] [For more information, see Center for International Environmental Law website.] [All should demand universal observance of practices that effectively preserve all species of life, and should demand an end to habitat destruction, over-harvesting, and pollution of all kinds.] [a/k/a International Day for Biological Diversity, World Biological Diversity Day, Biodiversity Day]

* 5/29 (A 7/9): Old Egyptian festival of Neteru Amen (God of transcendent powers) and Hapi (God of the Nile River); offerings were made to ensure the needed flooding of the Nile River. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 7/9] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Ipet-hemet day 15]

* 6/13 (A 7/24): Old Egyptian feast of Neteret Hathor, Goddess of Love and Fertility. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 7/24] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Ipet-hemet day 30]

* 6/14 (A 7/25): Beginning of Old Egyptian Shomu/Harvest month of Mesut-Ra/Mesori, dedicated to Neteru Ra and Rait. Priests and priestesses made offerings to the Neteru (Gods and Goddesses) to ensure that there would be security and protection for all. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 7/25] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Mesut-Ra day 1] 

* 6/21: Yoruba/Santeria feast of Orisha Babalu Aye, Guardian of the Disabled.

* 6/26: Day torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment were outlawed world-wide (1987); day to mourn their continued existence. [Torture is an illegal, immoral, and ineffective means of interrogation and punishment. All officials have a legal duty and moral obligation to refuse an order to commit torture and to prevent it from occurring. Anyone who attempts, conspires, or commits torture is legally culpable. All acts of torture should be investigated, prosecuted, and punished. Neither war nor civil strife nor emergency justifies torture.] [Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment: adopted 12/10/1984; signed 2/4/1985; entered into force 6/26/1987.] [Text of Convention] [The Committee Against Torture monitors implementation of the Convention. For more information, see U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights website; Human Rights Watch website.] [Article 5 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Article 7 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) also guarantee freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.] [See U.N. website on Torture Victims' Day.] [All should condemn torture, and should demand an end to the use of torture - of anyone for any purpose.] [a/k/a International Day in Support of Victims of Torture]

* 6/29: Yoruba/Santeria feast of Orisha Eleggua, Intercessor and Ruler of Destinies. Yorubas/Santeros communicate with the Orishas through divination.

* 6/29 to 7/3: Zoroastrian celebration of Divine Spirit Haurvatat (Wholeness), creator and protector of water. [a/k/a Maidhyoishema, Mid-Summer] [Fasli calendar]

* 6/30: Vigil for peace, democracy, religious freedom, ethnic equality, and the end of slavery and genocide in Sudan. [About the Darfur crisis] [For more information on the Darfur conflict, see Global Security website and Wikipedia article on War in Darfur. And for information on the conflict between north and south Sudan, see Wikipedia article on the Second Sudanese Civil War. For information on the human rights situation, see Human Rights Watch report: Sudan; Amnesty International report: Sudan; U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2003: Sudan.] [6/30 is Sudan's Revolution Day, the day in 1989 when Colonel Omar al-Bashir led a military coup d'etat against Prime Minister Sadiq al Mahdi. The military government suspended political parties and introduced Islamic law.]

* 7/1: Day the world's nations committed to stop proliferation of nuclear weapons (1968); vigil to protest the production and use of all nuclear weapons world-wide. [Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: signed 7/1/1968; entered into force 3/5/1970.] [Text of Convention] [The U.S. used 2 atomic bombs on Japan in 8/1945: over 270,000 civilians died from the bombs and radiation. The original nuclear powers have failed to destroy their nuclear weapons in spite of the Treaty's requirement that they work towards disarmament. 9 countries are known to currently possess nuclear weapons, and other countries are attempting to develop or acquire them, in spite of the Treaty's prohibition.] [All should renounce the production, acquisition, and use of nuclear weapons, and should demand destruction of all existing weapons.] [For more information, see Wikipedia article on Nuclear Warfare. See also U.N. Office for Disarmament Affairs (U.N.O.D.A.) website; International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.) website.]

* 7/1: Day endangered species became internationally protected (1975); day to celebrate all the world's creatures. [Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora a/k/a C.I.T.E.S.: signed/adopted 3/3/1973; entered into force 7/1/1975.] [Text of Convention] [For more information, see U.N. Environment Programme C.I.T.E.S. website; World Wildlife Fund (W.W.F.) website; Endangered Species Coalition website; National Wildlife Federation website; Defenders of Wildlife website; EarthJustice website; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website.]

* 7/2: Day discrimination on the basis of ethnicity, gender, and religion was prohibited in public accommodations, employment, and education (1964). [The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson.] [Pub. L. 88-352, 78 Stat. 241, 42 U.S.C. 2000a et seq.] [Text of statute] [Title II prohibits discrimination in public accommodations, Title III and Title VI prohibit discrimination by local governments, Title IV and Title IX prohibit discrimination in education, and Title VII prohibits discrimination in employment.] [For information on fighting discrimination based on "race" and "color", see U.S. E.E.O.C. website, and for information on fighting discrimination based on national origin, see U.S. E.E.O.C. website. For information on fighting discrimination based on gender (including sexual harassment), see U.S. E.E.O.C. website. For information on fighting discrimination based on religion, see U.S. E.E.O.C. website.]

* 7/14 (A 8/24): Old Egyptian birthday feast of Neter Osiris - partner and true love of Isis, and father of Horus; guide of all husbands, fathers, and judges. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 8/24] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Epagomenal day 1]

* 7/15 (A 8/25): Old Egyptian birthday feast of Neter Horus the Elder, lover of Neteret Hathor. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 8/25] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Epagomenal day 2]

* 7/16 (A 8/26): Old Egyptian birthday feast of Neter Set, God of the Desert. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 8/26] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Epagomenal day 3]

* 7/17 (A 8/27): Old Egyptian birthday feast of Neteret Isis - partner and true love of Osiris, and mother of Horus; guide of all wives, mothers, healers, advocates, and teachers. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 8/27] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Epagomenal day 4]

* 7/18 (A 8/28): Old Egyptian birthday feast of Neteret Nepthys, estranged wife of Neter Set. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 8/28] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Epagomenal day 5]

* 7/18: Day South Africa's apartheid was internationally outlawed (1976); birthday of Nelson Mandela, non-violent anti-apartheid activist (1918). [Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid: signed/adopted 11/30/1973; entered into force 7/18/1976.] [Text of Convention] [See Wikipedia article on Apartheid in South Africa. For information on the human rights situation today, see Human Rights Watch report: South Africa.]

* 7/19 (A 8/29): Old Egyptian birthday feast of Neter Ra and Rait, Deities of the Sun. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 8/29] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Tekh day 1]

* 7/19 to 8/1 (A 8/29 to 9/11): Old Egyptian festival marking the return to Egypt of Neteret Isis (as the star of Septet/Sirius), Neter Osiris (as the star of Sahu/Orion), and the rains that inundate the Nile River. [Old Egyptian New Year; beginning of Akhet/Inundation month of Tekh/Thout, dedicated to Neter Thoth (God of Time).] [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 8/29 to 9/11] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Tekh days 1-14] [9/11 is also the Coptic New Year.] 

* 7/28: Day the U.S. Constitution's 14th Amendment went into effect, guaranteeing due process and equal protection of the law to all (1868). [The 14th Amendment was approved by Congress on 6/13/1866 and, after ratification by the states, was proclaimed in effect on 7/28/1868.] [Text of amendment]

* 8/2 (A 9/12): Old Egyptian festival of Neteru Amen (God of transcendent powers) and Hapi (God of the Nile River); offerings were made to ensure the needed flooding of the Nile River. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 9/12] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Tekh day 15]

* 8/2: Feast of the Black Madonna. [a/k/a Feast of the Virgin of the Angels]

* 8/5 to 8/6 (A 9/15 to 9/16): Old Egyptian Wag Festival, honoring the dead and Neter Osiris (Lord of Amenta, realm of the dead). Food was brought to the tombs and shared with the dead. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 9/15 to 9/16] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Tekh days 18-19]

* 8/6: Day the Voting Rights Act became law (1965) - register to vote! [The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson.] [Pub. L. 89-110, 79 Stat. 437, 42 U.S.C. 1973 et seq.] [Text of statute] [The purpose of the Voting Rights Act is to prevent state and local governments from using voting requirements, voting district boundaries, voting locations, and other election laws to disenfranchise African-Americans.]

* 8/6 to 8/7 (A 9/16 to 9/17): Old Egyptian festival of Neter Thoth, God of Knowledge and Wisdom. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 9/16 to 9/17] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Tekh days 19-20]

* 8/9 (A 9/19): Old Egyptian Great Procession of Neter Osiris. The image of Osiris was transported on a bark to the tombs. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 9/19] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Tekh day 22]

* 8/9: World's Indigenous Peoples' Day--Day to celebrate the empowerment of indigenous peoples world-wide; vigil for justice and respect for the social, cultural, and political rights of all indigenous peoples. [See U.N. website on International Day of the World's Indigenous Peoples.] [a/k/a International Day of the World's Indigenous Peoples, International Indigenous Peoples' Day]

* 8/18 (A 9/28): Beginning of Old Egyptian Akhet/Inundation month of Menkhet/Paopi, dedicated to Neteru Amen-Ra-Atem and Amenet-Rait-Mut. Priests and priestesses made offerings to the Neteru (Gods and Goddesses) to ensure that there would be strength and freedom for all. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 9/28] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Menkhet day 1]

* 8/28: Day of Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s peaceful march on Washington, D.C., for recognition of the rights of African Americans (1963). [Rev. King made his inspiring "I have a dream" speech at this rally.]

* 8/28: Opening of the Second World Parliament of Religions (1993), attended by members of all the world's religions. A Global Ethic was adopted that condemns hatred, aggression, oppression, and environmental abuses committed in the name of religion. [Text of Global Ethic] [See also website for the Parliament of the World's Religions.]

* 9/1 to 9/11 (A 10/12 to 10/22): Old Egyptian Opet Festival, honoring Neteru Amen-Ra-Atem and Amenet-Rait-Mut. The pharaoh went to the Luxor Temple at Thebes in order to have his authority to rule recognized. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 10/12 to 10/22] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Menkhet days 15-25] 

* 9/3: Day gender discrimination was outlawed world-wide (1981); day to mourn all manifestations of sexism. [Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women: adopted by U.N. General Assembly 12/18/1979; signed 3/1/1980; entered into force 9/3/1981.] [Text of Convention] [The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) monitors implementation of the Convention. For more information, see WomenWatch: United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women website; Feminist Majority Foundation website; Human Rights Watch website.] [Article 2 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Article 2 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) also prohibit discrimination on account of gender.]

* 9/6: Birthday of Efua Dorkenoo, African women's rights activist and mother of the global movement to end female genital mutilation (1949). [See Wikipedia article on Efua Dorkenoo.]

* 9/8: Yoruba/Santeria feast of Oshun, Orisha of Love and Compassion.

* 9/12 to 9/16: Zoroastrian celebration of Divine Spirit Spenta Armaiti (Devotion), creator and protector of Earth. [a/k/a Paitishahya, Corn-Harvest] [Fasli calendar]

* 9/17 (A 10/28): Beginning of Old Egyptian Akhet/Inundation month of Het-Hert/Athor, dedicated to Neteret Hathor. Priests and priestesses danced and played sistra, tambourines, and menat in honor of the Neteru (Gods and Goddesses). [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 10/28] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Het-Hert day 1]

* 9/21: International Day of Peace--Day to demonstrate for peace with justice throughout the world. [Peace can be realized where there is recognition of sovereignty/autonomy, compliance with just law, respectful behavior, responsible sharing of resources, cooperation to attain common goals, and reasonable compromise to enable all to meet lawful goals.] [See International Day of Peace website; International Day of Peace Vigil website.]

* 9/24: Yoruba/Santeria feast of Obatala, Orisha of Peace and Justice.

* 9/25 (A 11/5): Old Egyptian festival of Neter Amen-Ra-Atem, the Great God, and Neteret Amenet-Rait-Mut, the Great Goddess. Their images were transported on a bark from Karnak to Luxor. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 11/5] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Het-Hert day 9]

* 9/29: Yoruba/Santeria feast of Orisha Eleggua, Intercessor and Ruler of Destinies. Yorubas/Santeros are initiated into the service of the Orishas and minister to practitioners.

* 9/30: Yoruba/Santeria feast of Shango, Orisha of Passion and Virility. Yorubas/Santeros worship the One Deity Olodumare and the Orishas (Olodumare's aspects and powers) with food offerings.

* 10/4: Yoruba/Santeria feast of Orunmila, Orisha of Wise Counsel and Protection.

* 10/9: Vigil for peace, justice, and respect for the human rights of all in Uganda. [Following the military coup d'etat by Yoweri Museveni and his National Resistance Army (N.R.A.) in 1986, the N.R.A. attacked ethnic groups in northern Uganda. The Lord's Resistance Army (L.R.A.), was founded by Alice Lakwena in 1987 to defend the Acholi people there. It has been led by Joseph Kony since 1987. The L.R.A. is a Christian extremist organization that wants to overthrow the Museveni government and install a "Christian" government in Uganda. (Christianity is the predominant religion in Uganda, though there is a significant Muslim minority.) In addition to attacking the Ugandan military, the L.R.A. has attacked Ugandan villages, killing and mutilating civilian adults, raping and forcing women into sexual slavery, and forcing children to serve as soldiers. Since 1993, the L.R.A. has also attacked civilians in southern Sudan.] [See Wikipedia articles on the National Resistance Movement and on the Lord's Resistance Army.] [For information on the human rights situation in Uganda, see Human Rights Watch report: Uganda; Amnesty International report: Uganda.] [Though the Lord's Resistance Army purports to be Christian and wants to enforce the 10 Commandments as law in Uganda, it violates the commandment "thou shalt not kill" and Jesus' commandment to "love your neighbor as yourself".] [10/9 is Uganda's Independence Day. Uganda became independent from Britain in 1962, and became a republic in 1963. Milton Obote took control following independence. He was deposed by Idi Amin in 1971, who committed many atrocities. Milton Obote returned to power in 1979, but was deposed by General Tito Okello in 1985, who was in turn deposed by Yoweri Museveni.]

* 10/12 to 10/16: Zoroastrian celebration of Divine Spirit Ameretat (Immortality), creator and protector of vegetation. [a/k/a Ayathrima, Herds-Homecoming] [Fasli calendar]

* 10/17 (A 11/27): Beginning of Old Egyptian Akhet/Inundation month of Nehebkau/Khoiak, dedicated to Neteru Isis and Osiris. Priests and priestesses read hymns of thanksgiving to the Neteru (Gods and Goddesses). [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 11/27] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Nehebkau day 1]

* 10/17 (A 11/27): Old Egyptian feast of Neteret Hathor, Goddess of Fate. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 11/27] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Nehebkau day 1]

* 10/18: Day the Clean Water Act was enacted (1972); day to give thanks for the water we drink. [Pub. L. 92-500, 86 Stat. 896, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.] [Text of statute] [For information on water pollution, see U.S. E.P.A. website; Clean Water America Alliance website; Clean Water Action website; EarthJustice website ; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website; American Rivers website.]

* 10/21: Day military attacks on civilians were outlawed world-wide (1950); day to mourn all civilian victims of war. [All soldiers have a legal duty and a moral obligation to refuse an order to attack a noncombatant. Anyone who plans, orders, or carries out such an act is legally culpable. All attacks on noncombatants should be investigated, prosecuted, and punished.] [Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War a/k/a Fourth Geneva Convention: signed 8/12/1949; entered into force 10/21/1950.] [Text of Convention] [See Wikipedia article on Fourth Geneva Convention.] [All should condemn all attacks on noncombatants, and should demand an end to them.]

* 10/24: Yoruba/Santeria feast of Orisha Erinle, Healer of the Sick and Injured. Herbs are used for healing.

* 10/28 to 11/15 (A 12/8 to 12/26): Old Egyptian Sokar Festival/Khoiak Ceremonies. It commemorates Neteret Isis seeking out and finding the scattered remains of Neter Osiris. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 12/8 to 12/26] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Nehebkau days 12-30]

* 10/31 eve to 11/2 eve: Old Sumerian fast recalling the descent of Inanna (Goddess of Life) to the Underworld. Ereshkigal (Goddess of Death and Rebirth) detained Her until She agreed to have Dumuzi (God of Life and Death) remain there each Winter.

* 11/1 to 11/2: Fon/Vodou feast of Ghede, Loa of the Dead; time for honoring ancestral spirits. Fon/Vodouisants believe all Loas (Deities) originate from Co-Creators Goddess-God Mawu- Lisa.

* 11/3: Christian feast of St. Martin of Porres (d. 1639), healer and advocate of social equality and inter-ethnic harmony; guide of healers and human rights activists.

* 11/5: World Community Day--Day for celebrating the unity behind diversity and remembering we are all one people - all children of the one universal Deity of many names and aspects.

* 11/11: Death day of Lucretia Mott (1880), Quaker preacher and non-violent advocate for the rights of women and African Americans. [Birthday 1/3/1793]

* 11/16 (A 12/27): Beginning of Old Egyptian Proyet/Emergence month of Shefbedet/Tobi. Priests and priestesses made offerings to the Neteru (Gods and Goddesses) to ensure that there would be peace and harmony throughout the land. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 12/27] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Shefbedet day 1]

* 11/16: Tolerance Day--Day to promote harmony in diversity through mutual respect and understanding of all, regardless of gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity, religion, culture, language, nationality, or economic status. [Despite international and domestic laws providing for equal rights, freedoms, and protections, members of minority groups are still harassed and discriminated against because of societal intolerance arising from fear and ignorance.] [Intolerance often results from projection of "collective guilt": it is immoral to blame an entire group for the acts of a member unless the entire group empowered the member who acted or endorsed the acts.] [See U.N. website on International Day for Tolerance; Wikipedia article on Declaration of Principles on Tolerance.] [a/k/a International Day for Tolerance]

* 11/18: Fast for an Abundant World Harvest--Day to fast and commit to action to help prevent deaths from malnourishment world-wide. [For more information, see Oxfam America website.] [a/k/a Fast for a World Harvest]

* 11/25: Thanksgiving Day--Day to give thanks for the abundance of our land and for our food, clothes, shelter, and health.

* 11/25: Yoruba/Santeria feast of Oya, Orisha of Death and Rebirth.

* 11/26: Death day of Sojourner Truth (1883), Christian preacher and non-violent advocate for the rights of women and African Americans. [Born 1797: exact date unknown]

* 12/1: World AIDS Day--Day to pray for healing of all those suffering with AIDS and HIV. [For information on World AIDS Day, see World AIDS Day website. For information about the global fight against AIDS, see UNAIDS website.]

* 12/4: Yoruba/Santeria feast of Orisha Shango, Defender Against Evil.

* 12/10: Day the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted, and fundamental rights were recognized world-wide (1948). [The U.N. General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (U.D.H.R.) in Resolution 217 A(III).] [Text of Declaration] [For information on the history of the U.D.H.R., see Franklin & Eleanor Roosevelt Institute website. The U.D.H.R. is generally recognized as binding customary international law: all countries are required to respect the rights within it. In 1966, the concepts of the U.D.H.R. were expanded and drafted into two binding international treaties with enforcement mechanisms. The Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) is enforced by the Human Rights Committee. The Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (Text of Covenant) is enforced by the Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. For more information, see U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights website; Human Rights Watch website; Amnesty International website.] [All should demand universal observance of all rights enumerated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights - for all people.] [a/k/a International Human Rights Day]

* 12/14 (A 1/24): Old Egyptian festival of Neteret Bastet, Cat Goddess who protects the home and fosters domestic harmony. Her image was transported on a bark on the Nile River from Karnak to Bubastis. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 1/24] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Shefbedet day 29]

* 12/15 (A 1/25): Old Egyptian festival of Neteret Amenet-Rait-Mut, the primordial Great Mother. Her image was transported on a bark on Isheru Lake with other Lion Goddesses. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 1/25] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Shefbedet day 30]

* 12/15: Day the Bill of Rights became part of the U.S. Constitution, guaranteeing fundamental rights to all (1791). [Text of Bill of Rights] [For more information about the Bill of Rights and the U.S. Constitution, see U.S. National Archives & Records Administration website and the Bill of Rights Institute website. For information on organizations that advocate for enforcement of rights and liberties in the Bill of Rights, see Center for Constitutional Rights website; American Civil Liberties Union website.] [a/k/a Bill of Rights Day]

* 12/16 (A 1/26): Beginning of Old Egyptian Proyet/Emergence month of Rekehwer/Mekhir. Priests and priestesses made offerings to the Neteru (Gods and Goddesses) to ensure the continuation of order (maat) and life (ankh). [The Negative Confession reflects the ethics of the ancient Egyptians.] [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 1/26] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Rekehwer day 1]

* 12/17: Yoruba/Santeria feast of Orisha Babalu Aye, Healer of Deadly Diseases.

* 12/17: Day the Clean Air Act was enacted (1963); day to give thanks for the air we breathe. [Pub. L. 88-206, 77 Stat. 392, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.] [Text of statute] [For information on air pollution, see U.S. E.P.A. website; American Lung Association website; EarthJustice website; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website.]

* 12/18: Day the U.S. Constitution's 13th Amendment went into effect, outlawing all slavery (1865). [The 13th Amendment was approved by Congress on 1/31/1865 and, after ratification by the states, was proclaimed in effect on 12/18/1865.] [Text of amendment]

* 12/26: Day commemorating the death of Zoroastrian Prophet Zarathustra (551 BCE). [628-551 BCE: exact dates unknown] [Fasli calendar]

* 12/26 to 1/1: Kwanzaa--Festival celebrating positive African traditions; emphasizes unity, self-determination, collective work and responsibility, cooperative economics, purpose, creativity, and faith.

* 12/28: Day the Endangered Species Act was enacted (1973); day to mourn those creatures already extinct. [Pub. L. 93-205, 87 Stat. 884, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.] [Text of statute] [For information on endangered species preservation, see U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service website; Endangered Species Coalition website; National Wildlife Federation website; Defenders of Wildlife website; EarthJustice website; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website.]

* 12/28: Day an Islamic court ruled female genital mutilation to be un-Islamic and banned the practice (1997). [The State Council, Egypt's highest administrative court, also ruled that F.G.M. is illegal unless medically necessary. See BBC News article.] [See also Gender Equity in Islam (which indicates F.G.M. predates Islam, is not mentioned in the Qur'an, and is not mandated by any hadith).] [For more information about F.G.M., see Female Genital and Sexual Mutilation - Bibliography.]

* 12/31: Yoruba/Santeria festival of Orisha Yemaya, Mother of the Sun and Moon.

* 12/31 to 1/4: Zoroastrian celebration of Divine Spirit Vohu Manah (Good Intent), creator and protector of animals. Vohu Manah is one of seven male and female divine emanations of Deity Ahura Mazda. [a/k/a Maidhyairya, Mid-Winter] [Fasli calendar]

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[Many religions were practiced in the Middle East and Africa prior to the birth and expansion of Christianity and Islam. They included Judaism and Zoroastrianism, ancient Egyptian, ancient Mesopotamian (including Sumerian), and ancient Arabian, as well as a multitude of indigenous African religions.]

[The Zoroastrian religion (Zoroastrianism) was founded by Prophet Zarathustra (Zoroaster) in 6th Century BCE Persia (now Iran). It is practiced primarily in Iran and India (where Zoroastrians are called Parsis). The holy scripture of the Zoroastrians is the Avesta. Zoroastrianism is grounded in Nature and its rhythms. Zoroastrians pray 5 times daily in the presence of fire, either at home or in a Fire Temple. There are three Zoroastrian calendars in use today, resulting from different reforms to reconcile the original 360-day Zoroastrian calendar with the solar year. The Zoroastrian Fasli calendar (on which the Zoroastrian holidays in this calendar are based) uses fixed dates for Zoroastrian holidays. The other two calendars use moveable dates. Thus, Zoroastrians following the other calendars will celebrate the holidays on different days than those listed here.]

[The ancient Egyptian religion was practiced throughout East Africa (in Sudan, Ethiopia, and Eritrea, as well as Egypt). It is still being practiced today by some as Egyptian Spirituality, Egyptian Paganism, Kemetic religion, Kemetic Spirituality, Kemetic Paganism, Kemeticism, and Kemetic faith. Old Egyptian holidays (Kemetic holidays) in this calendar are based on the ancient Egyptian calendar. The ancient Egyptians used 3 calendars: a lunar calendar, a fixed calendar, and a lunisolar calendar. The Old Egyptian New Year is disputed. The Alexandrian calendar (a reform of the ancient Egyptian calendar by Roman Emperor Augustus in 25 BCE that added a 6th leap year day) sets the Old Egyptian New Year at 8/29 (except years encompassing the Gregorian leap year day, when the New Year is on 8/30). The Alexandrian calendar is the same as the Coptic calendar (a Julian-type calendar), but the Alexandrian dates are adjusted to the Gregorian calendar. (The Coptic New Year is on 9/11, except years encompassing the Gregorian leap year day, when the New Year is on 9/12.) The New Year was celebrated in ancient times at the time of the annual life-giving inundation of the Nile River. The annual inundation occurs around 7/19 on the Gregorian calendar. Consequently, the Kemetic calendar sets the Old Egyptian New Year at 7/19. The Copts and the Arabs of Egypt celebrated "The Night of the Drop" on the night of 7/17 into the 19th Century. This first drop presaged the coming inundation. It was believed that the drop was a tear drop that Goddess Isis cried in mourning over the death of God Osiris. Her tears were believed to cause the annual flooding of the Nile. Ancient Egyptian dates are calculated based on the Kemetic calendar, with secondary reference to Alexandrian calendar dates.]

[Santeria is a syncretism of the West African religion of the Yoruba (Nigerian) people (Yoruba religion) with Catholicism. Santeria, like other African Spirituality, is grounded in Nature and its rhythms. The Santeria Orishas reflect the powers of Nature and virtues. Santeria holidays are Yoruba holidays affixed to the feast days of the Catholic saints that the Santeria Orishas are identified with. Consequently, the Santeria calendar is based on the Catholic calendar. Similarly, Vodun (Voodoo) is a syncretism of the West African Fon (Dahoman) religion with Catholicism. Santeria and Vodun are practiced in the Caribbean, Brazil, and the United States, as well as in West Africa.]

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Permission to use and distribute these excerpts is granted for non-commercial purposes, provided the following information is included:

Excerpted from
THE MYSTIC'S WHEEL OF THE YEAR 2004
A Multifaith Calendar Reflecting Eco-Egalitarian Spirituality
© 2003 Marija Miovski
www.WheeloftheYear.com