Year 2005
Calendar
By Tradition...
Jewish - Kabbalah
Holidays - 2005
Christian -
Ecumenical Mysticism/
Wisdom Tradition

Holidays - 2005
Unitarian Universalist
Holidays - 2005
Muslim - Sufi
Holidays - 2005
Baha'i Holidays - 2005
±±±±±±±±±±
Hindu Holidays - 2005
Jain & Sikh Holidays - 2005
Buddhist Holidays - 2005
Taoist & Shinto Holidays - 2005
±±±±±±±±±±
Middle-Eastern & African Holidays: Zoroastrian,
Ancient Egyptian, Santeria - 2005
Native American
(Iroquois, Navajo & Pueblo)
& Meso American
(Inca, Mayan & Aztec)
Holidays - 2005
Pagan Holidays:
Old Religions of Europe (Greek, Roman, Slavic, Celtic, Anglo-Teutonic & Norse) - 2005
±±±±±±±±±±
Deep Ecology / Environmentalist
Dates - 2005
Social Justice /
Human Rights / Feminist
Dates - 2005
Peace /
Disarmament
Dates - 2005
±±±±±±±±±±
Solar & Lunar Cycles,
Eclipses & Helions - 2005
Meteor Showers - 2005
Visible Planets - 2005
Astrological Periods - 2005
±±±±±±±±±±
Experiential Meditations
(for lunar cycles throughout the year)
Empowering Meditations
Action Offerings
(to help the environment 
& further social justice)
Art as Meditation
±±±±±±±±±±±±±±±±±±±±
You are viewing the 2005 calendar. View a different year. Return home.

2005 Deep Ecology / Environmentalist Dates

* 12/31 eve to 1/1 eve: Old Greek festival in which offerings were made to the Wind Gods of the eight directions. [Poseideon 19]

* 12/31 to 1/4: Zoroastrian celebration of Divine Spirit Vohu Manah (Good Intent), creator and protector of animals. Vohu Manah is one of seven male and female divine emanations of Deity Ahura Mazda. [a/k/a Maidhyairya, Mid-Winter] [Fasli calendar]

* 1/1: Day Pope John Paul II exhorted Christians to respect Nature, to preserve natural resources, and to stop environmental destruction (1990). [Citing Genesis, the Pope said that, because responsibility for Creation was entrusted by Deity to humankind, the ecological crisis is a moral issue of human responsibility. He believed the ecological crisis was caused by a lack of respect for life. He said that it implicates planetary peace as well as the quality of life of all. He was concerned about the depletion of the ozone layer, massive urban concentrations, unrestricted deforestation, and the use of certain types of herbicides, coolants, and propellants. He also expressed concern about genetically-modified plants and animals. He exhorted governments to cooperate internationally, and to internally adopt internationally-accepted standards, to ensure preservation of the environment.] [This was expressed in "Peace with God the Creator, Peace with All of Creation: Message of His Holiness Pope John Paul II for the Celebration of the World Day of Peace".]

* 1/1: Day the World Trade Organization (W.T.O.) was created (1995). Day to peacefully demonstrate to ensure that international trade complies with international and domestic standards concerning human rights, environmental protection, consumer protection, and labor practices. [See W.T.O. website. See also analysis of the W.T.O. and human rights generally: by Caroline Dommen, by Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann, by Gabrielle Marceau, and by Steve Charnovitz; and by 3dThree (Trade-Human Rights-Equitable Economy in the context of agriculture. See also analysis of the W.T.O. and the environment: the W.T.O.'s perspective; Public Citizen's perspective; and Greenpeace's perspective. See also analysis of the W.T.O. and consumer protection: by Public Citizen. See also analysis of the W.T.O. and labor rights: by the W.T.O. and by Foreign Policy in Focus.]

* 1/1 to 1/4: Tewa Turtle Dance--celebrating life and the first Creation, when Sky Father embraced Earth Mother and all life was conceived.

* 1/5: Avian Day--Day to honor all creatures of the air and to meditate on Deity manifesting as birds - Goddess as Babd/Crow (Old Celtic), Lilith/Owl (Old Sumerian-Hebrew) & Holy Spirit/Dove (Christian); and God as Horus/Hawk (Old Egyptian) & Hilina/Thunderbird/Eagle (Haida). [Birds cannot survive unless their habitat is preserved. For information about conservation of birds, see National Audubon Society website; American Bird Conservancy website; North American Bird Conservation Initiative website; Migratory Bird Conservation Commission website; Bird Conservation Network website; Bird Life International website.] [The National Audubon Society was founded on 1/5/1905.] [a/k/a National Bird Day, Bird Day]

* 1/10 eve: Rosh Chodesh--Jewish women gather to worship the Shekhinah, the feminine manifestation of Elohim, the one universal Deity; and to pray and act for peace, social justice, and environmental healing to bring about Tikkun Olam (reparation of the world and reunification of the Divine). [For discussion of the Shekhinah as the feminine Divine Presence honored at Rosh Chodesh, see Wikipedia article on Shekhinah and "Women and Rosh Chodesh" from My Jewish Learning.] ["Elohim" is a masculine plural of a feminine Hebrew word that refers to a singular Deity whose unity incorporates both masculine and feminine elements. See Wikipedia article on Elohim. Kabbalists believe that estrangement between the Divine masculine and feminine elements has resulted in violence, injustice, and environmental destruction, but human action can bring about reparation and reunification. See "The History of 'Tikkun Olam'" by Jill Jacobs. While Kabbalists, Jewish feminists, the Jewish Renewal Movement, and many Reconstructionist and Reform Jews perceive Elohim as gender-inclusive, other Jews do not. Some Jews of all denominations perceive Elohim as genderless, but most Orthodox and Conservative Jews perceive Elohim as exclusively male. See "The Divine Feminine in Kabbalah: An Example of Jewish Renewal" from My Jewish Learning.] [a/k/a Rosh Chodesh Sh'vat, Rosh Chodesh Shivat, Rosh Chodesh Shivath, Rosh Chodesh Shevat, beginning of the Jewish month of Shevat]

* 1/13 to 1/25 (Icelandic 1/21, Old Icelandic 1/14): Old Norse Mid-Winter Feast--Offerings were made to the Deities (particularly Jord, Thor, and Freyr) for growth of crops. Toasts of mead and ale were made in honor of the Deities. [a/k/a Mid-Winter Blot, Midvetr, Midvetrarblot, Jordblot, Thorrablot, Freyrblot]

* 1/24 eve to 1/25 eve: Tu B'Shevat--Jewish Festival of Trees, celebrated with tree plantings and orchard blessings. [See Blessing for Tree Fruit/Beracha Borei P'ri Ha-Eitz.] [Tu B'Shevat is the new year for purposes of calculating the age of trees for tithing. Tree fruit is not to be eaten until the tree is five years old.] [In ancient times, the Hebrew people and priesthood honored Asherah in groves of trees as well as in the first Temple in Jerusalem (for two-thirds of the time the Temple existed). She was considered to be the consort of the Hebrew God YHVH/Adonai. See 1 Kings/Melachim 14:23; 2 Kings/Melachim 17:10; 2 Kings/Melachim 21:7; 2 Kings/Melachim 23:6; Jeremiah/Yirmiyahu 17:2. See also "An Altar of Earth: Reflections on Jews, Goddesses and the Zohar" by Rabbi Jill Hammer; Wikipedia article on Asherah; "The Hebrew Goddess" by Raphael Patai.] [In modern times, Tu B'Shevat has been treated as Jewish Earth Day. For articles on environmentalism in Judaism, see "The Modern Environmental Movement: Jewish Perspectives" by Preston Hunter; "Jewish Environmental Studies: A New Field" by Manfred Gerstenfeld; "Judaism and the Environment 101" by Hazon; "Ten Jewish Teachings on Judaism and Environmentalism" by C.O.E.J.L. See also Coalition on Environmentalism and Jewish Life (C.O.E.J.L.) website. C.O.E.J.L. is an organization dedicated to promoting environmental healing.] [a/k/a Tu B'Sh'vat, Tu B'Shivat, Tu B'Shivath, Tu Bi Shevat] [Shevat 15]

* 1/24 to 2/1: Sementivae--Old Roman festival of sowing, honoring Earth Goddess Terra (Greek Gaia), Grain Goddess Ceres (Greek Demeter), and Seed Goddess Proserpina (Greek Persephone). [Roman calendar]

* 1/25 to 2/2: Navajo Sing--Festival in preparation for the coming agricultural season; celebrated with prayer, chanting, dancing, and healing. Navajos believe Naste Estsan/Spider Woman helped twin brothers Naymezyani and Tobadzistsini defeat the powers of evil.

* 1/27: Death day of John James Audubon (1851), ornithologist and conservationist. [Birthday 4/26/1785] [John James Audubon founded the National Audubon Society.] [See National Audubon Society website.] 

* 1/29: Birthday of Thomas Paine (1737), Deist who recognized the inherent rights of all men and women, and opposed non-democratic government. Deists believe Deity to be consistent with Nature and reason. [a/k/a Common Sense Day] [Death day 6/8/1809]

* 1/29: Birthday of Vladimir Soloviev (1853), Orthodox Christian mystic who bewailed humanity's alienation from Holy Wisdom and from Nature, Her manifestation. [Death day 8/12/1900]

* 1/31 eve to 2/2 eve: Imbolc/St. Brigid's Day--Old Celtic/Irish feast of Goddess Brigid; merged with the Christian feast of St. Brigid. Fires were lit to welcome Her as She traveled about blessing fields, animals, and people.

* 1/31 eve to 2/3 eve: Mid-Winter/Groundhog's Day/Candlemas--Festival marking the transformation from death to life - the beginning of the agricultural year, awakening of hibernating animals, and return of migrating birds and fish. Observed with a candlelight procession to bless fields and seeds, recognition of newborns, and contemplation of life. [a/k/a Old European cross-quarter day, Neo-Pagan cross-quarter day, Wiccan cross-quarter day, Mid-Winter Sabbat]

* 2/1 to 2/14: Old Greek festival of God Dionysos, in which vines were pruned and sprinkled with wine, accompanied by ritual singing and dancing. [Originated in ancient Thrace; still celebrated in Bulgaria.][a/k/a Trifon Zarezan, Viticulturists' Day] [Roman calendar]

* 2/2: World Wetlands Day--Day to celebrate the complex living community of water, plants, fish, birds, and mammals that live in wetlands world-wide; day to give thanks for wetlands for moderating the impact of flooding. [Total loss of original wetlands worldwide is estimated at 50%. In the 1600s, over 220 million acres of wetlands existed in the lower 48 states of the U.S. Since then, over half have been drained and converted to other uses (primarily agriculture and suburban development). The U.S. continues to lose over 100,000 acres of wetlands a year. When wetlands are lost, the filtering of sediments is compromised, water quality is degraded, fresh water supply is diminished, shoreline is eroded, and flooding increases.] [See World Wetlands Day website.] [And see the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands: adopted 2/2/1971; signed 2/3/1971; entered into force 12/21/1975.] [Text of Convention] [And see the Ramsar Convention website.] [The Ramsar Convention was contracted to conserve and ensure the wise use of all remaining wetlands.] [For more information, see U.S. E.P.A. website; Wetlands International website.]

* 2/12: Birthday of Charles Darwin (1809), biologist and evolutionary; day to meditate on the unity of science and spirituality. [Death day 4/19/1882] [For information about Charles Darwin and the theory of evolution, see Darwin Foundation website; About Darwin website.]

* 2/12 to 2/20: Iroquois Mid-Winter Ceremony--for continuation of all life-sustaining things; celebrated with tobacco offerings, confession of offenses, singing, drumming, dancing, name-giving, and dream-telling. Iroquois believe Awenhai/Sky Woman created the Sun, Moon, and Stars from Her body.

* 2/15: Birthday of Galileo (1564), astronomer; day to mourn the persecution of scientists by religious authorities. [Death day 1/8/1642]

* 2/17: Toshigoi--Shinto rite honoring the Kami and offering prayers for a bountiful rice harvest. The Kami are manifestations of the one universal, primordial and eternal, immanent and transcendent Deity, Kuni-Tokotachi-no-Kami. [a/k/a Toshigoi-no-Matsuri, Kinensai]

* 2/18: Birthday of Ramakrishna Paramahansa (1836), Hindu mystic who fervently loved Great Goddess Maha Devi - Mother of God, Mother of Nature, Elemental Matter, and Cosmic Power. He recognized Her immanence in all, and knew Her to be a manifestation of the one universal Deity. [Death day 8/16/1886]

* 2/23 to 3/3: Navajo Sing--Festival in which fields are blessed in preparation for planting. Navajos believe Estsanatlehi/Changing Woman wields the power to constantly create and change the world.

* 3/8 to 3/9: Mahashivaratri--Hindu fast, night vigil, and feast for God-Goddess Shiva-Shakti (union of Will and Power), who dances to create, destroy, and re-create the Universe. Tantric Hindus believe Shiva is within all men and Shakti within all women. [See Mantra to Shiva and Mantra to Devi.] [a/k/a Shivaratri, Mahashivaratra, Shiva's Night, Bhole ka Vrat, Shiva Vrat, Shiva's Fast, Shiva Puja] [Phalgun Krishna 13-14]

* 3/10 to 3/16 (A 4/20 to 4/26): Old Egyptian festival of Neteret Renenutet (Goddess of the Harvest) and Neter Nepri (God of Grain). A harvest offering was made. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 4/20 to 4/26] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Paenrenenutet day 25 to Paenkhons day 1]

* 3/14 to 3/20: National Wildlife Week--Time to watch for wildlife in the wild. [See National Wildlife Federation website on National Wildlife Week. See also Defenders of Wildlife website; EarthJustice website; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website.]

* 3/16 (A 4/26): Beginning of Old Egyptian Shomu/Harvest month of Paenkhons/Pakhon. Priests and priestesses made offerings of food and drink to the Neteru (Gods and Goddesses) to ensure that all people had abundant food and drink. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 4/26] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Paenkhons day 1]

* 3/16 eve to 3/17 eve: Feast of Old Greek Goddess Artemis (Roman Diana/Slavic Diwitsa) - as protector of wild animals, vegetation, and places. [Elaphebolion 6]

* 3/17: St. Patrick's Day--Old European festival marking rebirth of Viridios/the Green Man/Green George (God as deciduous vegetation); merged with the Christian feast of St. Patrick.

* 3/19: Yoruba/Santeria feast of Osanyin, Orisha of Deciduous Vegetation.

* 3/20 (7:33 a.m. EST): Spring Equinox--Marks the beginning of Spring and point of equal daylight and darkness; celebrates first, annual, and perpetual Creation with egg hunts and exchanges. [a/k/a Old European turning-of-the-season day, Neo-Pagan turning-of-the-season day, Wiccan turning-of-the-season day, Spring Sabbat]

* 3/20: Old Slavic Jare--God Jarilo/Lado returns from Virey (the realm of the dead across the sea) to reunite with Goddess Morana/Lada. Their love and happiness bring the world light, warmth, and fertility. Celebrated with a youth on a horse leading a procession of boys and girls carrying boughs of greens and flowers to bless each house in the village. [a/k/a Jurjevo]

* 3/20 to 3/21: Festival of First Creation--when Goddess-God Amenet-Amen (as Goose and Gander) laid and fertilized the Cosmic Egg from which all emerged (Old Egyptian); when Goddess-God Teteoinan-Teteoitah created all Deities and all existence (Aztec); when concentrated matter flared forth to make the universe (scientific theory).

* 3/21: Taoist festival honoring the Shen (Deities) of Water, East, and Spring; prayers are made for growth. Taoists seek enlightenment and live in harmony with Nature.

* 3/21: World Forest Day--Day to celebrate the complex living community of trees, plants, birds, and mammals that live in forests world-wide; day to give thanks for forests for cleaning the air of pollution. [Forest once covered 50% of the world. Today, forest covers only 30% of the world. Since 1600, 90% of the original forests that once covered the lower 48 states of the U.S. has been cleared away. Most deforestation of North America, Europe, the Middle East, and Asia occurred before 2000 and has stabilized. Deforestation continues to accelerate in South America and Africa. The rate of world deforestation averaged 8.3 million hectares per year between 1990 and 2000.] [For information about conservation of forests, see American Forests website; Forests.org website; International Union for Conservation of Nature (I.U.C.N.) website; World Wildlife Fund (W.W.F.) website; Greenpeace website. See also Statement of Principles for the Sustainable Management of Forests; Our Forests, Our Future: Summary Report of the World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development.] [a/k/a World Forestry Day]

* 3/24: Beginning of the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska (1989), which showed why oil shipping is a threat to the environment. [260,000 to 750,000 barrels (11-32 million gallons) of crude oil were spilled from an oil tanker when it struck Bligh Reef. The captain was asleep and the crew fatigued, and possibly drunk. The tanker's radar equipment was nonfunctional and it lacked iceberg-monitoring equipment. The oil leak was not stopped, and the oil was not contained, initially after the spill, when water conditions would have allowed it. Oil eventually covered 1,300 miles of coastline and 11,000 square miles of ocean, devastating a pristine environment. Countless marine, avian, and shore wildlife were killed and their habitat destroyed.] [See Wikipedia article on the Exxon Valdez oil spill. See also Greenpeace website.]

* 3/24 eve to 3/26 eve: Feast of the Seas--honoring God-Goddess as Olokun-Yemaya (Yoruba/Santeria) & Okeanos-Tethys (Old Greek); Goddess as Mamacocha (Inca), Hina Ke Kai (Hawaiian) & Tehom (Old Canaanite-Hebrew); and God as Njord (Old Norse).

* 3/28: Death day of Scott Cunningham (1993), who taught a reverent, ethical, egalitarian, and ecological form of Wicca. Wiccans create sacred space by calling on the powers of the four directions, invoke the Lord and Lady in their various guises, and raise power (through drumming, dance, and chant) to realize a positive purpose. [Birthday 6/27/1956]

* 4/7: Birthday of William Wordsworth (1770), poet and mystic who found connection with Deity while communing with Nature. [Death day 4/23/1850]

* 4/8: Hana Matsuri--Shinto rite honoring the Kami of Flowers. [a/k/a Flower Kami Festival]

* 4/8 to 4/11: Iroquois Thunder Ceremony--in thanksgiving for the rains. Iroquois believe Awenhai/Sky Woman descended from the Sky into the watery abyss, and landed on Turtle, on whom She created Earth.

* 4/9 to 4/18: Navaratri/Gangaur--Hindu festival honoring Great Goddess Maha Devi as Gauri - life, growth, and fruition. Shaktas are devoted to Great Goddess Maha Devi in all Her aspects. [See Mantra to Devi.] [a/k/a Vasant Navaratri, Vasant Navratri, Chaitra Navaratri, Chaitra Navratri, Navratras, Navaratra, Gauri Tritiya, Devi Puja, Devi Vrat] [Chaitra Shukla 1-9]

* 4/13: Day the Fishery Conservation and Management Act was enacted (1976); day to give thanks for the fish and seafood we eat. [P.L. 94-265, 90 Stat. 331, 16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.] [Text of statute] [See also Wikipedia article on Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act.] [In order to have fish and seafood for all to eat in the future, we need to harvest no more than the maximum sustainable yield today. To ensure that fish and seafood are responsibly harvested, the consumer must choose to eat only those species that are responsibly harvested. See National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (N.O.A.A.'s) FishWatch website.]

* 4/14: Cetacean Day--Day to honor all creatures of the sea and to meditate on Deity manifesting as sea creatures - Goddess as Delphine/Dolphin (Old Greek) & Sgana/Orca Whale (Haida); and God as Qolqalg Odai/Salmon (Haida). [Marine mammals and fish cannot survive unless the ocean is preserved. For information about conservation of marine mammals, see Marine Mammal Center website; American Cetacean Society website; Ocean Conservancy website; Ocean Alliance website; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (N.O.A.A.) Fisheries website; U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service website; International Whaling Commission (I.W.C.) website.] [a/k/a National Dolphin Day, Dolphin Day]

* 4/14 eve to 4/15 eve: Feast of Old Greek Goddess Artemis (Roman Diana/Slavic Diwitsa), who represents the feminine in Nature and protects women throughout their lives. Women recognized the transitions in their lives and honored female fertility. [Mounikhion 6]

* 4/15: Tax Day--Day to give back to the community for the benefits of community. [Give from your own abundance for the betterment of all: to pay for schools, libraries, hospitals, community centers, and parks; roads, bridges, and transit; fire, police, and military protection; health and safety requirements; food and drug inspections; regulation of financial institutions; equal rights enforcement; and environmental protection.] [To whom much is given, much is expected.]

* 4/16 eve to 4/17 eve: Feast of God Poseidon, Goddess Amphritrite, and all Old Greek Gods and Goddesses of the seas. [Mounikhion 8]

* 4/21: Birthday of John Muir (1838), naturalist and conservationist. [Death day 12/24/1914] [John Muir founded the Sierra Club.] [See the Sierra Club website.]

* 4/22: Earth Day--Day to honor the Earth and to meditate on Deity manifesting as Mother Earth. [For information about Earth Day activities, see Earthday Network website; Envirolink website; U.S. E.P.A. website for Earth Day.] [a/k/a International Earth Day, National Earth Day]

* 4/24 eve to 4/25 eve: Mounikhia--Festival of Old Greek Goddess Artemis (Roman Diana/Slavic Diwitsa), honoring Her as the Moon. [Mounikhion 16]

* 4/26: Beginning of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster (1986), which showed why nuclear power is not a safe energy source. [An explosion and fire sent a plume of radioactive smoke into the atmosphere, where it drifted over large parts of the western Soviet Union and Europe. Over 350,400 people had to permanently leave contaminated areas of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine.] [See Wikipedia article on the Chernobyl disaster. See also International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.) website; Greenpeace website.]

* 4/26 to 5/3: Mayan Rain Festival--honoring Rain God Chac and His attendant Chacmool, and welcoming the fructifying rains.

* 4/27: Death day of Ralph Waldo Emerson (1882), Transcendentalist Unitarian who believed in equality, self reliance, and the immanence of Deity in humans and in all Nature. [Birthday 5/25/1803]

* 4/28 eve to 5/3 eve: Floralia--Old Roman festival devoted to Flora, Goddess of Flowers. [Roman calendar]

* 4/29: Arbor Day--Day to honor trees, to plant trees, and to meditate on Deity manifesting as trees - Goddess as Helice/Willow (Old Greek), Yggdrasill/Ash (Old Norse) & Asherah/Palm (Old Canaanite-Hebrew). [For information about conservation of forests, see American Forests website; Forests.org website; International Union for Conservation of Nature (I.U.C.N.) website; World Wildlife Fund (W.W.F.) website; Greenpeace website. See also Statement of Principles for the Sustainable Management of Forests.] [a/k/a National Arbor Day]

* 4/30 eve to 5/2 eve: Beltaine--Old Celtic/Welsh feast of Blodeuwedd (Goddess of Flowers) and Llew (the Oak King - God of the waxing Sun).

* 4/30 to 5/4: Zoroastrian celebration of Divine Spirit Khshathra Vairya (Power), creator and protector of the Sky. Zoroastrians worship the one transcendent and immanent Deity Ahura Mazda, who is symbolized by a sacred fire. [a/k/a Maidhyoizaremaya, Mid-Spring] [Fasli calendar]

* 4/30 eve to 5/5 eve: Mid-Spring/May Day/Walpurgis--Celebrates sacred love and the flowering vegetation by gathering flowers and dancing around a Maypole. [a/k/a Old European cross-quarter day, Neo-Pagan cross-quarter day, Wiccan cross-quarter day, Mid-Spring Sabbat]

* 5/1: Birthday of Fr. Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881), Catholic mystic and evolutionary who experienced the union of consciousness with all Nature. [Death day 4/10/1955]

* 5/1: Day Pope John Paul II affirmed that capitalism must be tempered by social justice and restrained by human rights and environmental laws (1991). [Pope John Paul II rejected communism and totalitarianism, as well as consumerism and unbridled capitalism. He reaffirmed the fundamental rights of workers to their own labor, to dignity in work, to reasonable working conditions, to humane working hours, to a just and living wage, to a family life, to associate with other workers for their collective good, and to participate in a democratic process of governance under the rule of law. He indicated that the government has an obligation to seek full employment of workers through its economic policies, to provide social security for those unable to work, and to provide unemployment insurance and retraining for the unemployed. He also reaffirmed the right to private ownership of property, including technology, but cautioned that the government should not favor the wealthy over the poor. Rather, it is the responsibility of the government to protect all people, but especially the poor and the vulnerable, from exploitation by rich and the powerful companies, particularly in times of economic and industrial change. He also indicated that governments should not allow companies, in the name of capitalism, to exploit natural resources of the Earth irresponsibly and destroy the environment.] [Expressed in Pope John Paul II's Social Encyclical, issued on the 100th Anniversary of Rerum Novarum, the Social Encyclical of Pope Leo XIII, which it strives to reinterpret.]

* 5/1 to 5/4: Zuni Green Corn Dance--welcoming back the Corn Maidens, who flee the land during the Winter.

* 5/2 to 5/4: Rogation Days--Christian days of prayer for bountiful crops, sustainable development, and healing of environmental abuses. [See Prayers for Rogation Days.] [See also A Song of Creation.]

* 5/3: Taue Matsuri--Shinto rice-planting festival. Prayers are made to the Kami for a bountiful harvest. [a/k/a O-taue Matsuri, Otaue-Sai]

* 5/3: Dakinis' Day--Day Tantric Buddhists make offerings to the Dakinis (female embodiments of enlightened energy) and Mother Tantra; day to unite will and power to manifest positive social change and environmental healing. [Observed primarily by Tantric initiates.] [a/k/a Dakini Puja, Mother Tantra Puja, Tsog, Tsok] [25th Tibetan day]

* 5/6: Shepherd's Day--Day to meditate on Deity as Lord of Animals - God as Dumuzi (Old Sumerian), Osiris (Old Egyptian), Pan (Old Greek), Veles (Old Slavic) & Shiva Pasupati (Hindu). [a/k/a Shepherds' and Herdsmen's Day, Shepherd's and Herdsman's Day]

* 5/8: Christian feast of St. Julian of Norwich (d. 1419), mystic who believed Deity to be Father and Mother, everywhere in everything.

* 5/8 to 5/11: Iroquois Corn-Planting Ceremony--in thanksgiving for the corn seed.

* 5/9: Day the world's nations committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, which are causing climate change (1992); day to mourn the failure to reduce these emissions. [Due to these emissions, the planet has already started to experience the impacts of climate change: increased extremes of summer dryness (heat waves, droughts, and wildfires) and winter wetness (flooding); an increase in extreme weather (hurricanes and tornados); an increase of sea level (loss of coastline and loss of fresh water); a decrease in glaciers and polar ice caps; an increase in volcanic eruptions and earthquakes; loss of human habitat; loss of food availability (increase in food costs); and loss of plant and animal species (on land, in the oceans, and on the ice caps).] [Framework Convention on Climate Change: adopted 5/9/1992; signed 6/4/1992; entered into force 3/21/1994.] [Text of Convention] [The Kyoto Protocol, which includes mandatory reduction goals, was adopted by 180 nations 12/11/1997, signed 3/16/1998, and entered into force 2/16/2005.] [Text of Protocol] [The U.S. has refused to sign the Protocol. Instead, on 2/14/2002, the U.S. announced a plan to use tax incentives, tied to the U.S. economy, to encourage industry to voluntarily reduce carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions. This policy has not reduced emissions. The U.S. is the biggest polluter on the planet. 25% of the planet's carbon dioxide emissions is emitted by the U.S.] [For more information, see U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change website; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change website; Center for International Environmental Law website; Greenpeace website; EarthJustice website; Columbia University website on Assessments of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change in Multiple Regions and Sectors. See also Wikipedia article on the Kyoto Protocol.]

* 5/14: Spring Migratory Bird Day--Day to celebrate the migration of nearly 350 species of birds between nesting grounds in North America and playgrounds in Latin America, Mexico, and the Caribbean; day to watch for migrating birds and to advocate for preservation of migratory birds and their habitat. [Migratory birds are adversely affected by changes in land use, tall structures, use of toxins, and climate change. Some are threatened with extinction.] [See International Migratory Bird Day website; U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service website on Migratory Bird Day; U.N. website on World Migratory Bird Day.] [For information about conservation of migratory birds, see  Migratory Bird Conservation Commission website.] [a/k/a International Migratory Bird Day, World Migratory Bird Day, Migratory Waterbird Day]

* 5/15: Yoruba/Santeria feast of Ochossi, Orisha of Animals. Yorubas/Santeros celebrate with drumming, ecstatic dancing, and possession trance.

* 5/18: Feast of Old Greek God Pan, who represents the masculine in Nature and protects men throughout their lives. Men recognized the transitions in their lives and honored male fertility. [Roman calendar]

* 5/18: Day Fr. Matthew Fox nailed his own 95 Theses to the door of the church where Martin Luther nailed his theses, to spur an eco-egalitarian Christian reformation (2005). [A mystic, theologian, and teacher of Creation Spirituality, he recognizes Deity to be Mother and Father, immanent and transcendent.] [See Matthew Fox's 95 Theses.] [See also Friends of Creation Spirituality website; Creation Spirituality Communities website.]

* 5/22: Biological Diversity Day--Day to recognize that the survival of humanity is dependent on the survival of the many diverse species on the Earth: The extinction of other species will bring about our own extinction. [There has been a 40% loss of species between 1970 and 2000 due to habitat destruction, over-harvesting, and pollution. Our unsustainable consumption exceeds the biological capacity of the Earth by about 20%.] [See U.N. website on International Day for Biological Diversity.] [And see the Convention on Biological Diversity: signed 6/5/1992; entered into force 12/29/1993.] [Text of Convention] [And see the Convention on Biological Diversity website.] [The Convention on Biological Diversity was contracted to ensure conservation of biodiversity, sustainable use of biodiversity, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources.] [For more information, see Center for International Environmental Law website.] [a/k/a International Day for Biological Diversity, World Biological Diversity Day, Biodiversity Day]

* 5/26: Corpus Christi--Christian day for veneration of Christ Immanuel in the Host - divine immanence in the grain. [See Hail Divine Child prayer.]

* 5/27: Birthday of Rachel Carson (1907), biologist who began the environmental movement. [Death day 4/14/1964] [See Rachel Carson website.]

* 5/29 (A 7/9): Old Egyptian festival of Neteru Amen (God of transcendent powers) and Hapi (God of the Nile River); offerings were made to ensure the needed flooding of the Nile River. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 7/9] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Ipet-hemet day 15]

* 6/5: World Environment Day--Day to mourn the harm done to Mother Earth (past and present), make reparation, and celebrate Her beauty. [Anniversary of the opening of the U.N. Conference on the Human Environment on 6/5/1972.] [See U.N. website on World Environment Day.]

* 6/5 eve to 6/6 eve: Celebration day for Muhyi ad-Din Ibn El-Arabi (d. 1240), Sufi saint who honored Deity as a unity manifested in all Nature, both genders, and countless forms. He theorized about divine immanence ("Allah is Nature, and Nature Allah"), divine transcendence ("Allah is above Nature, which Allah created"), and the unity of being. [El-Arabi lived in Spain and wrote "Bezels of Wisdom" and "Meccan Revelations".] [See article on Muhyi ad-Din Ibn El-Arabi.] [For scholarly discussions of the obligation to preserve the environment in Islam, see "Towards an Islamic Jurisprudence of the Environment" by Prof. Mustafa Abu-Sway; "Islam and Ecology: A Bestowed Trust Inviting Balanced Stewardship" by Prof. Frederick M. Denny; "Man and Ecology: An Islamic Perspective" by Islam From Inside; "Islam and Ecology" by Marjorie Hope and James Young; and "Islam and the Environment" by Gar Smith. See also Islamic Foundation for Ecology and Environmental Sciences, an organization that advocates for environmental healing.] [a/k/a Muhyi ad-Din Ibn El-Arabi Wissal] [Rabi' al-thani 28] [Birthday & death day unknown]

* 6/6 to 6/11: Iroquois Strawberry Ceremony--in thanksgiving for the strawberry harvest. Iroquois consider themselves kin to all of Nature.

* 6/11: Birthday of Rabbi Mordecai Kaplan (1881), founder of Reconstructionist Judaism. He perceived Deity to be a genderless Cosmic Force of Nature, and promoted a Judaism that recognizes gender equality and rejects violence and social injustice. [Death day 11/8/1983] [See article on Mordecai Kaplan.] [Rabbi Kaplan wrote "The Meaning of God in Modern Jewish Religion" and "Judaism as a Civilization".] [Reconstructionist Judaism values personal autonomy and democratic decision-making as well as religious law and tradition. It embraces science and diverse views of Deity. It exhorts Jews to work for progressive ethical and social evolution in Judaism and society. See "Who is a Reconstructionist Jew?" by the Jewish Reconstructionist Federation. See also Jewish Reconstructionist Federation website.]

* 6/12 eve to 6/14 eve: Shavuot/Feast of First Fruits--Jewish festival of thanksgiving for the first fruits of the grain harvest. Originally, loaves of bread were offered to Elohim. Also commemorates Moses' receipt of the Ten Commandments. [See Blessing for Bread/Beracha Ha-Motzi Lechem.] [Moses identified Nehushtan with the Lord Adonai. Nehushtan was worshipped with Asherah. The serpents and trees that symbolized Nehushtan and Asherah were destroyed by King Hezekiah in 7th C BCE. See Numbers/Bamidbar 21:5-9; 2 Kings/Melachim 18:4.] [See also Wikipedia article on Nehushtan.] [Reform Jews and Reconstructionist Jews celebrate 1 day instead of 2 days.] [a/k/a Shavuoth, Feast of Weeks, Feast of Harvest, Hebrew Pentecost] [Sivan 6-7]

* 6/14: Day the world's nations committed to sustainable development (1992). [Day the Earth Summit Agenda 21, the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, and the Statement of Principles for the Sustainable Management of Forests were adopted by the 1992 Rio Conference/U.N. Conference on Environment and Development.] [Text of Agenda 21] [Text of Rio Declaration on Environment and Development] [Text of Statement of Principles for the Sustainable Management of Forests] [The Commission on Sustainable Development and the Division for Sustainable Development were created to implement these agreements.] [See also The Earth Charter Initiative.]

* 6/15: Suijin Matsuri--Shinto rite honoring the Kami of Water. [a/k/a Water Kami Festival]

* 6/17: World Day to Combat Desertification. Deforestation, inappropriate agriculture, and drought cause desertification. Desertification and land degradation undermine all agriculture and the existing ecosystem, and cause food and water insecurity, poverty, and social conflict. [See World Day to Combat Desertification website.] [And see the U.N. Convention to Combat Desertification a/k/a U.N.C.C.D.: adopted 6/17/1994; entered into force 12/26/1996.] [Text of Convention] [And see the U.N.C.C.D. website.] [The Convention to Combat Desertification was contracted to reverse and prevent desertification and land degradation and to mitigate the effects of drought, with their economic, social, and environmental ramifications.]

* 6/17: Day to celebrate Starhawk's work in reclaiming the Goddess and raising Goddess-consciousness. She teaches an eco-egalitarian form of Wicca. Wiccans advocate for environmental protection and gender equality out of reverence for Goddess, who controls, and is manifested in, Nature. [The Wiccan rede is: Do what you will, but harm none.]

* 6/18: Day Unitarian Universalists embraced spiritual teachings of Earth-centered traditions (1995).

* 6/20 to 6/21: Inti Rayni--Inca festival honoring Sun God Inti.

* 6/20 to 6/21: Feast of the Great Spirit/Great Mystery that encompasses Mother Earth and Father Sky - honoring Deity as Orenda (Iroquois), Asgaya Galun Lati (Cherokee), Wakan Tanka (Lakota) & Awonawilona (Zuni). [a/k/a Pan Native-American Unity Days]

* 6/20 to 6/23: Lakota Sun Dance--Festival of prayer, fasting, dancing, and healing in honor of Sun God Wi; offerings are also made to Maka/Mother Earth and Haokah/Father Sky. Lakotas believe all Deities are aspects of Creator Takuskanskan.

* 6/21 (2:46 a.m. EDT): Summer Solstice--Marks the beginning of Summer and the longest day and shortest night of the year; celebration of the light with dancing around a bonfire. [a/k/a Old European turning-of-the-season day, Neo-Pagan turning-of-the-season day, Wiccan turning-of-the-season day, Summer Sabbat]

* 6/21: Day Unitarian Universalists adopted seven unifying Principles (1985). U.U.s affirm and promote respect for the interdependent web of all existence. [See Unitarian Universalist Principles.] [adopted 6/17-6/21/1985]

* 6/24 to 6/27: Zuni Corn Dance--for fertility and rains to aid the maize, bean, and squash crops. Prayer sticks are planted in the fields.

* 6/29: Day the Earth Charter was launched (2000). The Earth Charter is a universal expression of ethical principles to foster sustainable development. [Text of Earth Charter] [See Earth Charter Initiative website; Earth Charter U.S. website.]

* 6/29 to 7/3: Zoroastrian celebration of Divine Spirit Haurvatat (Wholeness), creator and protector of water. [a/k/a Maidhyoishema, Mid-Summer] [Fasli calendar]

* 7/1: Day endangered species became internationally protected (1975); day to celebrate all the world's creatures. [Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora a/k/a C.I.T.E.S.: signed/adopted 3/3/1973; entered into force 7/1/1975.] [Text of Convention] [For more information, see U.N. Environment Programme C.I.T.E.S. website; World Wildlife Fund (W.W.F.) website; Endangered Species Coalition website; National Wildlife Federation website; Defenders of Wildlife website; EarthJustice website; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website.]

* 7/3: Cherokee Green Corn Dance--in thanksgiving for the maize harvest; honoring Maize Goddess Selu.

* 7/6 to 7/9: Iroquois Green Bean Ceremony--in thanksgiving for the bean harvest; celebrated with tobacco offerings, singing, drumming, dancing, and feasting.

* 7/7: Tanabata--Shinto rite honoring the Kami of the Stars. [a/k/a Star Kami Festival]

* 7/11: World Population Day--Day to meditate on the social and environmental costs of overpopulation. [The world's 7th billion baby is expected to be born in 2011. The world's population reached 1 billion in 1804, 2 billion in 1927, 3 billion in 1960, 4 billion in 1974, 5 billion in 1987, and 6 billion in 1999. Is this growth sustainable? Will the world have enough food, fresh water, medicine, and other needed resources for each person?] [See U.N. website on World Population Day.]

* 7/12: Birthday of Henry David Thoreau (1817), Transcendentalist and naturalist who believed in individualism and living simply in harmony with Nature. [Death day 5/6/1862]

* 7/12: Day to meditate on the social costs of climate change. [Kiribati is expected to be the first country to lose all its territory due to climate change. Some of its atolls have already been submerged by the rising Pacific Ocean waters. Kiribati's leaders have pleaded with other nations to take more action to prevent climate change and to accept its 100,000+ citizens as refugees.] [Will the nations that contribute to climate change be willing to take in all those who lose their homes due to climate change?] [Ethnic Micronesians have inhabited Kiribati's coral island and 32 atolls since before 1300. On 7/12/1979 Kiribati became independent from the U.K.]

* 7/19 (A 8/29): Old Egyptian birthday feast of Neter Ra and Rait, Deities of the Sun. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 8/29] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Tekh day 1]

* 7/19 to 8/1 (A 8/29 to 9/11): Old Egyptian festival marking the return to Egypt of Neteret Isis (as the star of Septet/Sirius), Neter Osiris (as the star of Sahu/Orion), and the rains that inundate the Nile River. [Old Egyptian New Year; beginning of Akhet/Inundation month of Tekh/Thout, dedicated to Neter Thoth (God of Time).] [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 8/29 to 9/11] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Tekh days 1-14] [9/11 is also the Coptic New Year.]

* 7/23: Mayan Sun Festival--honoring Sun God Ahau Kin; celebrated with devotional offerings of food, song, prayer, and a ritual procession that symbolically travels to the four quarters of the Universe.

* 7/25: Hurricane and Tornado Supplication Day. [Day to pray for a hurricane season that does not result in any deaths or severe property damage; day to meditate on the potentially devastating results of climate change.]

* 7/31 eve to 8/2 eve: Lughnasadh--Old Celtic/Irish Feast of Goddess Tailtiu and God Lugh (Deities of Sustenance and Light). The Celts would throw seven sacred woods into a fire in honor of the Gods and Goddesses.

* 7/31 eve to 8/6 eve: Mid-Summer/First Harvest/Lammas--Festival of thanksgiving for the first of the grain harvest; celebrated by offering the first fruits of the grain harvest and prayers for sustenance for all.[a/k/a Old European cross-quarter day, Neo-Pagan cross-quarter day, Wiccan cross-quarter day, Mid-Summer Sabbat]

* 8/2 (A 9/12): Old Egyptian festival of Neteru Amen (God of transcendent powers) and Hapi (God of the Nile River); offerings were made to ensure the needed flooding of the Nile River. [Kemetic calendar] [Alexandrian calendar 9/12] [Ancient Egyptian calendar: Tekh day 15]

* 8/3: Day the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act was enacted (1977); day to celebrate the end of strip mining and mourn the practice of mountaintop removal mining. [The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (S.M.C.R.A.), Pub. L. 95-87, 91 Stat. 445, 30 U.S.C. 1201-1328., was intended to prevent the adverse environmental impacts of strip mining, but it also authorized mountaintop removal (M.T.R.) mining. M.T.R. mining removes mountaintops to mine coal and other minerals. Although most mining sites must be reclaimed to the land's pre-mining contour and use, regulatory agencies issue waivers to allow M.T.R. mining. In the Appalachian Mountains, between Ohio and Virginia, 2,200 square miles of Appalachian forests have been cleared for M.T.R. mining sites, with associated destruction of wildlife. See Wikipedia article on Mountaintop Removal Mining. See also Greepeace website; EarthJustice website.]

* 8/4 to 8/7: Zuni Corn Dance--in thanksgiving to Mother Earth, the Kokos (Nature Spirits), and the Corn Maidens for the maize harvest. Following the harvest, the Zuni bid farewell to the Kokos and the Corn Maidens.

* 8/4 to 8/10: Iroquois Green Corn Ceremony--in thanksgiving for the maize harvest. Rites include the Thanksgiving Prayer, Confession Chant, and Feather Dance.

* 8/7: Gaia Consciousness Day--Day to meditate on Mother Earth as a living planet. [Anniversary of the first photograph of Earth from Space taken on 8/7/1959.] [For views of Earth from space, see the NSSDC Photo Gallery; Solar Views website.]

* 8/8: Day to mourn fracking's exemption from regulatory control (2005). Fracking is believed to poison water supplies, pollute the air, cause earthquakes, and sicken residents in the vicinity of the wells. [The Halliburton loophole in the Energy Policy Act, Pub. L. 109-58, 119 Stat. 594, 42 U.S.C. 15801 et seq., exempted fracking (hydraulic fracturing) from U.S. E.P.A. regulations. As a result of efforts spear-headed by Vice President Dick Cheney, fracking is exempted from the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the Superfund law, and other laws intended to prevent pollution. Efforts to eliminate the exemptions have been resisted by the oil and natural gas industry.] [Fracking is a technology used to extract natural gas that lies within shale rock formations thousands of feet beneath the Earth's surface. Chemicals (including carcinogens) are injected deep into the Earth with high pressure to fracture the rock.] [For more information, see Wikipedia article on Hydraulic Fracturing; SourceWatch website.]

* 8/10: Remembrance day for Nicholas of Cusa (d. 1464), Christian mystic who believed all Creation to be the unfolding of Deity. [Birthday & death day unknown]

* 8/11: Christian feast of St. Clare of Assisi (d. 1253), guide of environmentalists.

* 8/12: Day Pope Pius XII proclaimed the theory of evolution to be consistent with Catholic teaching and Christian faith (1950). [See Encyclical Humani Generis.] Pope John Paul II concurred. [See Message to Pontifical Academy of Sciences (10/22/1996).]

* 8/15: Kaza Matsuri--Shinto rite honoring the Kami of Wind. [a/k/a Wind Kami festival]

* 8/15: Dakas' Day--Day Tantric Buddhists make offerings to the Dakas (male embodiments of enlightened energy) and Father Tantra; day to unite will and power to manifest positive social change and environmental healing. [Observed primarily by Tantric initiates.] [a/k/a Daka Puja, Father Tantra Puja, Tsog, Tsok] [10th Tibetan day]

* 8/18 eve to 8/20 eve: Feast of Father Sky--honoring God as Obatala (Yoruba/Santeria), Ouranos (Old Greek), Perun (Old Slavic), Thor (Old Norse), Taranis (Old Celtic), Haokah (Lakota), Ilyapa (Inca), Dyaus (Hindu), An (Old Sumerian) & El-Elyon (Old Canaanite-Hebrew).

* 8/17: Birthday of Rabbi Zalman Schachter-Shalomi (1924), founder of the Jewish Renewal Movement. [Rabbi Schachter-Shalomi broke with the Lubavitcher Hasidic sect of Ultra-Orthodox Judaism to found the Jewish Renewal Movement in 1969. The Jewish Renewal Movement seeks to fully embrace modernism, egalitarianism, environmentalism, pacifism, and deep ecumenism. It incorporates Kabbalistic and Hasidic theology and practices, traditional prayer, meditation, joyous chant, and ecstatic dance. Both personal spiritual practice and social action are emphasized. See Wikipedia article on Jewish Renewal and ALEPH: Alliance for Jewish Renewal website.]

* 8/19: Vinalia--Old Roman festival of thanksgiving for the first of the grape harvest; celebrated by offering the first fruits of the grape harvest and prayers for sustenance for all. [Roman calendar]

* 8/25: Old Roman festival of Goddess Ops, Lady of the Cornucopia, Bounty of the Harvest, and Sustainer of Life. [Roman calendar]

* 8/27: Birthday of Rabbi Yisrael Ben Eliezer (Israel Baal Shem Tov) (1698), Kabbalistic mystic and founder of Hasidic Judaism. He believed that the whole Universe and all things are manifestations of Deity and that nothing can be separated from Deity. [Because of the Divine within, he believed all are inherently good. He rejected asceticism, embracing joy from the sense of oneness with the Divine, and emphasized service to Deity out of love, not fear.] [Death day 5/22/1760] [a/k/a Yisroel Ben Eliezer, Baal Shem Tov (Master of the Good Name), the holy Baal Shem, and the Besht] [See Baal Shem Tov Foundation website and Wikipedia article on Baal Shem Tov.]

* 8/28: Opening of the Second World Parliament of Religions (1993), attended by members of all the world's religions. A Global Ethic was adopted that condemns hatred, aggression, oppression, and environmental abuses committed in the name of religion. [Text of Global Ethic] [See also website for the Parliament of the World's Religions.]

* 8/29: Birthday of Henry Bergh (1811), non-violent advocate for animal rights; day to advocate for laws protecting animals from abuse. [Death day 3/12/1888] [Henry Bergh founded the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (A.S.P.C.A).] [See American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals website.]

* 9/3: Mindfulness Day--Zen Buddhist day for being mindful that harm to the Earth and sentient beings results from ignorance of interdependence.

* 9/8: Animal Day--Day to honor all creatures of the land and to meditate on Deity manifesting as animals - God-Goddess as Ra/Lion & Rait/Lioness (Old Egyptian); Nandi/Bull & Prisni/Cow (Hindu); God as Cernunnos/Stag (Old Celtic) & Mica/Coyote (Lakota); and Goddess as Rhpisunt/Bear Mother (Haida). [Animals cannot survive unless their habitat is preserved. For information about conservation of animals, see World Wildlife Fund (W.W.F.) website; International Fund for Animal Welfare (I.F.A.W.) website; National Wildlife Federation website; Defenders of Wildlife website; EarthJustice website; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website; World Animal Net website.] [a/k/a Down Driving Day, Down-driving Day]

* 9/10: Birthday of Thomas Thayer (1812), Universalist who believed Deity to be at work in evolution and continuing Creation. [Death day 2/12/1886]

* 9/12 to 9/16: Zoroastrian celebration of Divine Spirit Spenta Armaiti (Devotion), creator and protector of Earth. [a/k/a Paitishahya, Corn-Harvest] [Fasli calendar]

* 9/16: Ozone Preservation Day--Day to recognize that the survival of humanity is dependent on preservation of the ozone (a fragile shield of gas that protects the Earth from the harmful rays of the Sun). [Without the protection of the ozone, there will be reduction in food availability and endemic skin cancer. Commonly used chemicals are extremely damaging to the ozone layer.] [See U.N. website on International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer.] [See also the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Almanac of Policy Issues article on Ozone and the U.K. Postnote "Ozone Layer Depletion and Health".] [a/k/a International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer, World Ozone Preservation Day]

* 9/16 eve to 9/18 eve: Feast of Mother Earth--honoring Goddess as Odudua (Yoruba/Santeria), Gaia (Old Greek), Mati-Syra-Zemlya (Old Slavic), Jord (Old Norse), Danu (Old Celtic), Maka (Lakota), Pachamama (Inca), Prithivi (Hindu), Ki (Old Sumerian) & Elath-Terah (Old Canaanite- Hebrew).

* 9/16 eve to 9/25 eve: Greater Eleusinian Mysteries--Old Greek festival recalling Goddess Demeter's search for Her missing daughter Kore. Devotees fasted, ritually bathed in the sea, processed by torch-light to the temple, made ritual offerings, and danced. They honored Demeter (as Mother Nature), Goddess Kore (as the harvested grain), and God Dionysos (as the harvested grape) for bringing life, death, and rebirth. [Boedromion 13-21]

* 9/17: Christian feast of St. Hildegard von Bingen (d. 1179), mystic who sang praises to the Holy Spirit as Grace (Caritas) and Wisdom (Sapientia). She recognized the Holy Spirit to be the feminine aspect of the Holy Trinity, and found Her everywhere in Nature.

* 9/17: International Coastal Cleanup Day. [A floating "continent" of garbage twice the size of Texas is swirling in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. Do your part to help clean up the ocean and seashore.] [See Ocean Conservancy's website on International Coastal Clean-up Day.]

* 9/17 to 9/25: Navajo Sing--Festival in thanksgiving for the harvest. Estsanatlehi/Changing Woman is believed to represent life, and is manifested in the harvest.

* 9/22 (6:23 p.m. EDT): Autumn Equinox--Marks the beginning of Autumn and point of equal daylight and darkness; celebrates the bounty of Mother Earth with feasting and aiding those in need. [a/k/a Old European turning-of-the-season day, Neo-Pagan turning-of-the-season day, Wiccan turning-of-the-season day, Autumn Sabbat]

* 9/22: Old Slavic Dozhinki--At the end of the grain harvest, God Jarilo/Lado betrays Goddess Morana/Lada, and he returns to the realm of the dead. Morana's anger and sadness causes the world to become dark, cold, and dead. As a God manifested in the grain, Jarilo's death is recognized with the last of the harvest. [a/k/a Dozynki]

* 9/22: World Car-Free Day--Walk, bike, or take mass transit everywhere! [Help make your community into a walkable community. Lobby your local officials for better mass transit, more bike lanes, and safe walking paths. Insist on transit-oriented development. Make all growth smart growth!] [See World Carfree Network website.] [a/k/a World Carfree Day]

* 9/22: Day the world's nations committed to protecting the sky's ozone layer from harmful chemicals (1988); day to mourn continuing air pollution. [Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer: signed/adopted 3/22/1985; entered into force 9/22/1988.] [Text of Convention and Amendments (Montreal Protocol, London Amendment, Copenhagen Amendment, Montreal Amendment & Beijing Amendment] [For more information, see U.N. Environment Programme Ozone Secretariat website.] [See also the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Almanac of Policy Issues article on Ozone and the U.K. Postnote "Ozone Layer Depletion and Health".]

* 9/23: Taoist festival honoring the Shen of Winds, West, and Autumn; thanksgiving is made for the harvest. Taoists believe the unity of Yin (Eternal Feminine) and Yang (Eternal Masculine) make up the psyche-matter-energy of the eternal all-encompassing Ch'i.

* 9/24: National Estuaries Day--Day to celebrate the complex living community of water, plants, fish, birds, and mammals that live where rivers meet the sea; day to give thanks for estuaries for cleaning the water of pollution. [While estuaries serve as pollution filters, too much pollution can kill an estuary.] [See Restore America's Estuaries website; Ocean & Coastal Resource Management website.]

* 9/25: World Rivers Day--Immerse yourself and feel the flow of life. [If they are not polluted, rivers provide us with food, water, transportation, and recreation.] [See World Rivers Day website.]

* 9/28: Good Neighbor Day--Day to reach out to neighbors and cultivate good relations. [A good neighbor welcomes new neighbors and helps out neighbors in need. A good neighbor does not make loud noises or use bright white outdoor lights at night. A good neighbor does not create noxious smells or leave trash in the yard or on the street. A good neighbor does not speed or run stop signs in neighborhood streets. And a good neighbor does not bully or frighten neighborhood residents.] [a/k/a National Good Neighbor Day]

* 9/30 eve to 10/1 eve: Old Greek festival honoring Gaia and the Nymphs (the male and female Spirits of Nature). [Boedromion 27]

* 10/1 to 10/7: World Wildlife Week--Time to celebrate fish, cetaceans, amphibians, reptiles, birds, rodents, mammals, marsupials, and primates in all their diversity. [See World Wildlife Fund (W.W.F.) website; National Wildlife Federation website; Defenders of Wildlife website; EarthJustice website; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website.]

* 10/3: World Habitat Day--Day to recognize the necessity of sanitary, non-toxic, and environmentally-sustainable shelter; day to advocate for adequate shelter for all. [See U.N. website on World Habitat Day; U.N. Habitat website.] [a/k/a Human Habitat Day]

* 10/3 eve to 10/5 eve: Rosh Hashanah/Jewish New Year (Year 5766)--Commemorates Creation of the World by Elohim, the one universal Deity; begins ten days of self-examination and penitence for harm done. This signifies day five of Creation, when humans were created.] [See Blessing for Life/Beracha Shehechiyanu.] [On Rosh Hashanah, everyone is judged by Elohim based on his or her actions during the previous year. The resulting judgment is inscribed, and everyone's future is determined for the following year. Though that judgment is inscribed, it is not yet sealed and can still be changed until Yom Kippur, when the book is sealed for the year. Regret for past misdeeds, commitment to future good deeds, prayer, and charity can change a bad decree. The shofar is blown to mark the new year and the beginning of the ten Days of Penitence.] [See Psalm/Tehillim 106:3: "Happy are those who act justly, who do right at all times" and Psalm/Tehillim 119: "Happy are those who keep the judgments, and practice righteousness at all times".] [See Prayers of Confession/Viddui.] [Rosh Hashanah a/k/a Rosh Hashana, Rosh HaShanah; Days of Penitence a/k/a Days of Repentance, Days of Awe, High Holy Days, Aseret Yemei Teshuva, Yamim Noraim] [Tishri 1-2]

* 10/3 to 10/6: Iroquois Squash Ceremony--in thanksgiving for the squash harvest. Iroquois rites also include the secret Little Water Ceremony for preserving the potency of medicine and Dark Dance for appeasing spirits.

* 10/4: Christian feast of St. Francis of Assisi (d. 1226), and Animal Blessing Day. [See Prayer of Saint Francis.]

* 10/4: World Animal Day--Day to focus on the health and happiness of the animals who share our lives. [Four million cats and dogs are killed each year in U.S. animal shelters alone. Help stop this by supporting only no-kill rescues, shelters, and sanctuaries; by adopting from a shelter; by spaying/neutering your cat/dog; and by advocating that government-run shelters provide low-cost spay/neuter and inoculation programs and adopt trap-neuter-release policies.] [See American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (A.S.P.C.A.) website; Humane Society website; International Fund for Animal Welfare (I.F.A.W.) website; World Animal Net website.] [a/k/a World Animal Welfare Day]

* 10/5: Walk to School Day--Have your kids start hiking or biking to school every day for their health, the health of neighborhood residents, and the health of the planet! [Walking or biking to school provides kids the exercise they need to keep a healthy weight and makes kids mentally alert, which helps them to learn. Keeping cars from queuing at school entrances reduces the volume of vehicle exhaust in residential neighborhoods that causes cancer and lung disease in residents and students, and reduces the volume of air pollution that harms Mother Earth.] [See Walk to School website.] [a/k/a International Walk to School Day]

* 10/8: Fall Migratory Bird Day--Day to celebrate the migration of nearly 350 species of birds between nesting grounds in North America and playgrounds in Latin America, Mexico, and the Caribbean; day to watch for migrating birds and to advocate for preservation of migratory birds and their habitat. [Migratory birds are adversely affected by changes in land use, tall structures, use of toxins, and climate change. Some are threatened with extinction.] [See U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service website on Migratory Bird Day.] [For information about conservation of migratory birds, see Migratory Bird Conservation Commission website.] [a/k/a International Migratory Bird Day]

* 10/9 eve to 10/10 eve: Proerosia--Old Greek festival in which fruits of all the harvest were offered to Goddess Demeter. [Pyanepsion 6]

* 10/10 to 10/16: National Wildlife Refuge Week--Time to recognize that the survival of humanity is dependent on the survival of other species, and the survival of all species is dependent on preservation of their respective habitats. [See U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service website on the National Wildlife Refuge System (public lands and waters set aside to conserve America's fish, wildlife and plants).]

* 10/12 to 10/16: Zoroastrian celebration of Divine Spirit Ameretat (Immortality), creator and protector of vegetation. [a/k/a Ayathrima, Herds-Homecoming] [Fasli calendar]

* 10/16: World Food Day--Day to recognize the necessity of affordable, healthy, and environmentally-sustainable food; day to advocate for adequate food for all. [Day the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization was founded in 1945.] [See U.N. website on World Food Day; U.N. World Food Programme website.]

* 10/17: Shukaku Matsuri--Shinto rite offering thanks and first fruits of the rice harvest to the Kami. [a/k/a Aki Matsuri, Kannamesai, Harvest Festival]

* 10/17 eve to 10/24 eve: Sukkot/Feast of Ingathering--Jewish thanksgiving for the fruit harvest. Originally, a dance procession was made to vineyards and wine was offered to Elohim. Also commemorates the years in the wilderness after leaving Egypt. [See Blessing for Wine/Beracha Borei Pr'i Ha-Gafen.] [Temporary dwellings are built, in which Jews eat, sleep, and pray during the festival, to remind them of the Shekhinah, the Divine Presence, who protected them in the wilderness. A prayer for world peace is recited.] [a/k/a Sukkoth, Feast of Tabernacles] [Tishri 15-21]

* 10/18: Day the Clean Water Act was enacted (1972); day to give thanks for the water we drink. [Pub. L. 92-500, 86 Stat. 896, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.] [Text of statute] [For information on water pollution, see U.S. E.P.A. website; Clean Water America Alliance website; Clean Water Action website; EarthJustice website ; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website; American Rivers website.]

* 10/21: Day the Marine Mammal Protection Act was enacted to protect marine mammals from harassment, hunting, capture, and killing (1972). [Pub. L. 92-522, 86 Stat. 1027, 16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.] [Text of statute] [Harassment includes any act of pursuit, torment, or annoyance that has the potential to injure a marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild. Acts having the potential to disturb a marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild by causing disruption of behavioral patterns, including, but not limited to, migration, breathing, nursing, breeding, feeding, or sheltering, also constitute harassment. Driving marine mammals from a beach where they are resting is harassment. As is pursuit or encircling of marine mammals with boats.] [For information about conservation of marine mammals, see Marine Mammal Center website; American Cetacean Society website; Ocean Conservancy website; Ocean Alliance website; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (N.O.A.A.) Fisheries website; U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service website.] [Consult guidance on whale, dolphin, seal, sea lion, porpoise, and manatee-watching in Alaska, Northwest U.S., California, Hawaii, Northeast U.S., and Florida .] [To learn about the harassment of harbor seals at Casa Beach, see San Diego SealWatch website.]

* 10/24 eve to 10/25 eve: Shemini Atzeret/Feast of Assembly--Jewish festival of praise and thanksgiving for life-giving rain. [See Blessing for Rain/Beracha Mashiv Ha-Ruach.] [a/k/a Shemini Atsereth, Shemini Atseret] [Reform Jews and Reconstructionist Jews celebrate Simchat Torah on the same day as Shemini Atzeret and call it Atzeret-Simchat Torah or Atzeret Ha-Torah.] [Tishri 22]

* 10/28: Day the world's nations committed to biodiversity and ecosystem conservation (1982). [The World Charter For Nature was adopted by the U.N. General Assembly on 10/28/1982.] [Text of World Charter for Nature] [See "World Conservation Strategy and the World Charter for Nature" by Debjani Education.]

* 10/31 eve to 11/2 eve: Samhain--Old Celtic/Welsh New Year and feast of Cerridwen (Goddess of Death) and Beli (the Holly King - God of the Waning Sun).

* 10/31 eve to 11/6 eve: Mid-Autumn/Day of the Dead/Hallowmas--Festival marking the transformation of life to death - the end of the agricultural year, departure of migrating and hibernating animals, and decay and death of vegetal and animal life. Observed by remembering departed ancestors and contemplating one's own mortality. [a/k/a Old European cross-quarter day, Neo-Pagan cross-quarter day, Wiccan cross-quarter day, Mid-Autumn Sabbat]

* 11/9: Birthday of Fr. Thomas Berry (1914), Catholic priest, eco-theologian, and cosmologist, who advocates for deep ecology and eco-spirituality. [He believes the Universe, our Solar System, and planet Earth, in themselves, and in their evolutionary emergence, constitute the primary revelation of the ultimate Mystery from which all things emerge into being.] [See Thomas Berry's Twelve Principles for Understanding the Universe and the Role of the Human in the Universe Process. See also Thomas Berry's website. And see Thomas Berry's Earth Spirituality and the "Great Work" and Thomas Berry and a New Creation Story.]

* 11/15: America Recycles Day--Day to begin systematically recycling all your paper, glass, plastics, and metal that can be recycled. [Ask your work, school, and house of worship to recycle, too!] [See America Recycles Day website. And see Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website.]

* 11/16: Day the world's nations agreed to protect the oceans and their creatures from pollution and over-harvest (1994); day to mourn continuing pollution and over-harvest. [U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea: signed/adopted 12/10/1982; entered into force 11/16/1994.] [Text of Convention] [For more information on the Convention, see U.N. Division for Ocean Affairs and Law of the Sea website. See also Wikipedia article on U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea; Citizens for Global Solutions website.] [For information on ocean pollution and fisheries conservation, see Greenpeace website; EarthJustice website; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website.]

* 11/17: Fast for an Abundant World Harvest--Day to fast and commit to action to help prevent deaths from malnourishment world-wide. [For more information, see Oxfam America website.] [a/k/a Fast for a World Harvest]

* 11/24: Thanksgiving Day--Day to give thanks for the abundance of our land and for our food, clothes, shelter, and health.

* 12/1: Suijin-Matsuri--Shinto rite honoring the Kami of Water. [a/k/a Water Kami Festival]

* 12/9 eve to 12/10 eve: Feast of God Poseidon, Goddess Amphritrite, and all Old Greek Gods and Goddesses of the seas. [a/k/a Poseidea] [Poseideon 8]

* 12/17: Day the Clean Air Act was enacted (1963); day to give thanks for the air we breathe. [Pub. L. 88-206, 77 Stat. 392, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.] [Text of statute] [For information on air pollution, see U.S. E.P.A. website; American Lung Association website; EarthJustice website; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website.]

* 12/20 eve to 12/21 eve: Old Greek festival in which offerings were made to the Wind Gods of the eight directions. [Poseideon 19]

* 12/21 (1:35 p.m. EST): Winter Solstice/Solar New Year--Marks the beginning of Winter and the shortest day and longest night of the year; celebration of the darkness with dancing near the hearth fire. [a/k/a Old European turning-of-the-season day, Neo-Pagan turning-of-the-season day, Wiccan turning-of-the-season day, Winter Sabbat]

* 12/21 to 12/22: Old European Festival of Evergreen Trees; merged into International Arbor Day. Celebrated by planting trees and hanging wreaths (symbols of eternal life).

* 12/22: Taoist festival honoring Wang-Mu/Empress Mother, Mother of Compassion and Wisdom, and manifestation of the Tao (Cosmic Power of Creation and Destruction). Also celebrates the peak of the feminine Yin half of the year and the Shen of Earth, North, and Winter; prayers are made for rest and renewal, and offerings are made to the Cosmos.

* 12/28: Day the Endangered Species Act was enacted (1973); day to mourn those creatures already extinct. [Pub. L. 93-205, 87 Stat. 884, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.] [Text of statute] [For information on endangered species preservation, see U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service website; Endangered Species Coalition website; National Wildlife Federation website; Defenders of Wildlife website; EarthJustice website; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website.]

* 12/31 to 1/4: Zoroastrian celebration of Divine Spirit Vohu Manah (Good Intent), creator and protector of animals. Vohu Manah is one of seven male and female divine emanations of Deity Ahura Mazda. [a/k/a Maidhyairya, Mid-Winter] [Fasli calendar]

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Permission to use and distribute these excerpts is granted for non-commercial purposes, provided the following information is included:

Excerpted from
THE MYSTIC'S WHEEL OF THE YEAR 2005
A Multifaith Calendar Reflecting Eco-Egalitarian Spirituality
© 2004 Marija Miovski
www.WheeloftheYear.com