Year 2005
Calendar
By Tradition...
Jewish - Kabbalah
Holidays - 2005
Christian -
Ecumenical Mysticism/
Wisdom Tradition

Holidays - 2005
Unitarian Universalist
Holidays - 2005
Muslim - Sufi
Holidays - 2005
Baha'i Holidays - 2005
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Hindu Holidays - 2005
Jain & Sikh Holidays - 2005
Buddhist Holidays - 2005
Taoist & Shinto Holidays - 2005
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Middle-Eastern & African Holidays: Zoroastrian,
Ancient Egyptian, Santeria - 2005
Native American
(Iroquois, Navajo & Pueblo)
& Meso American
(Inca, Mayan & Aztec)
Holidays - 2005
Pagan Holidays:
Old Religions of Europe (Greek, Roman, Slavic, Celtic, Anglo-Teutonic & Norse) - 2005
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Deep Ecology / Environmentalist
Dates - 2005
Social Justice /
Human Rights / Feminist
Dates - 2005
Peace /
Disarmament
Dates - 2005
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Solar & Lunar Cycles,
Eclipses & Helions - 2005
Meteor Showers - 2005
Visible Planets - 2005
Astrological Periods - 2005
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Experiential Meditations
(for lunar cycles throughout the year)
Empowering Meditations
Action Offerings
(to help the environment 
& further social justice)
Art as Meditation
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2005 Jain & Sikh Holidays

* 1/1: World Peace Day--Day to meditate for peace throughout the world. [World Peace Day; Universal Hour of Peace: 7:00-8:00 a.m. EST.]

* 1/4: Day ethnic discrimination was outlawed world-wide (1969); day to mourn all manifestations of racism. [Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination: signed/adopted 3/7/1966; entered into force 1/4/1969.] [Text of Convention] [The Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) monitors implementation of the Convention. For more information, see Human Rights Watch website.] [Article 2 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Article 2 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) also prohibit discrimination on account of race.] [The U.N. has designated 3/21 to 3/27 Week of Solidarity with the Peoples Struggling against Racism and Racial Discrimination.]

* 1/5: Birthday of Guru Gobind Rai Singh Sahib, tenth Sikh guru (1666). He believed that only those who love find Deity, and exhorted Sikhs to show compassion for humanity. [Guru Gobind Singh lived 1666-1708; guru 1675- 1708.] [a/k/a Guru Gobind Singh Parkash] [Nanakshahi calendar]

* 1/12: Day genocide was outlawed world-wide (1951); day to mourn all victims of genocide. [Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide: signed/adopted 12/9/1948; entered into force 1/12/1951.] [Text of Convention] [For more information, see Prevent Genocide International website.] [Jainas and Sikhs should condemn all past genocides and, to prevent future genocides, should demand an end to persecution on account of any nationality, ethnicity, "race" or religion.]

* 1/16: World Religions Day--Day to contemplate all religions as different paths to the one universal Deity of many names and aspects.

* 1/31: Birthday of Guru Har Rai Sahib, seventh Sikh guru. [Guru Har Rai lived 1630-1661; guru 1644-1661.] [a/k/a Guru Har Rai Parkash] [Nanakshahi calendar]

* 2/1 to 2/28: Ethnic Equality Month--Time to honor all peoples and their positive traditions; time to meditate on the equality of all peoples, on the respect due to them, and on God-Goddess manifesting as African, Asian, Oceanic, Middle Eastern, European, Hispanic, and Native American. [Expands idea of African-American History Month a/k/a Black History Month.]

* 3/1: Day the production and use of landmines was outlawed world-wide (1999); day to mourn their victims. [Protocol on Prohibition or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps, and Other Devices a/k/a Convention on Landmines a/k/a Mine Ban Treaty, amending the 1980 Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects: Treaty signed/adopted 10/10/1980; entered into force 12/2/1983; Protocol signed 12/3/1997; entered into force 3/1/1999.] [Text of Convention] [India and Pakistan are still manufacturing landmines. India, Pakistan, and the U.S. have not ratified the Protocol.] [Landmines maim and kill civilians, including children. Those that survive endure a lifetime of hardship.] [Jainas and Sikhs should renounce the production and use of landmines, and should demand removal and destruction of all existing landmines.] [For more information, see International Campaign to Ban Landmines (I.C.B.L.) website; Landmine Monitor website; Adopt a Minefield website.]

* 3/1 to 3/31: Gender Equality Month--Time to honor both genders; time to meditate on the equality of women and men, on the respect due to both women and men, and on Goddess-God manifesting as woman and man. [Expands idea of Women's History Month.]

* 3/8: International Women's Day--Day to mourn victims of gender-based oppression and misogyny (past and present), make peace, and celebrate women's empowerment. [See U.N. website on International Women's Day; A history of International Women's Day.]

* 3/14: Sikh New Year (Nanakshahi Era 537 begins). Accession of Guru Har Rai Sahib, seventh Sikh guru, commemorated. [Guru Har Rai lived 1630-1661; guru 1644-1661.] [a/k/a Guru Har Rai Gur Ghaddhi] [Nanakshahi calendar]

* 3/19: Death of Guru Hargobind Sahib, sixth Sikh guru, commemorated. [Guru Hargobind lived 1595-1644; guru 1606-1644.] [a/k/a Guru Hargobind Jyoti Jot] [Nanakshahi calendar]

* 3/21: World Forest Day--Day to celebrate the complex living community of trees, plants, birds, and mammals that live in forests world-wide; day to give thanks for forests for cleaning the air of pollution. [Forest once covered 50% of the world. Today, forest covers only 30% of the world. Since 1600, 90% of the original forests that once covered the lower 48 states of the U.S. has been cleared away. Most deforestation of North America, Europe, the Middle East, and Asia occurred before 2000 and has stabilized. Deforestation continues to accelerate in South America and Africa. The rate of world deforestation averaged 5.2 million hectares per year between 2000 and 2010.] [For information about conservation of forests, see American Forests website; Forests.org website; International Union for Conservation of Nature (I.U.C.N.) website; World Wildlife Fund (W.W.F.) website; Greenpeace website. See also Statement of Principles for the Sustainable Management of Forests; Our Forests, Our Future: Summary Report of the World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development.] [Jainas and Sikhs should demand an end to deforestation, and should demand universal observance of sustainable management practices of the world's forests.] [a/k/a World Forestry Day]

* 3/26: Day production and use of biological weapons was outlawed world-wide (1975); day to mourn their victims. [Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction a/k/a Biological Weapons Convention: signed 4/10/1972; entered into force 3/26/1975.] [Text of Convention] [20 countries are believed to have current or past biological weapons programs.] [Jainas and Sikhs should renounce the production, acquisition, and use of biological weapons, and should demand destruction of all existing weapons.] [For more information, see Wikipedia article on Biological Warfare. See also U.N. Office for Disarmament Affairs (U.N.O.D.A.) website; Federation of American Scientists (F.A.S.) Biological and Chemical Weapons Main Page.]

* 4/7: World Health Day--Day to pray for healing of all those chronically and seriously ill; day to advocate for adequate health care for all. [Day the World Health Organization (W.H.O.) was founded in 1948.] [For information on World Health Day, see World Health Organization website.] [For information on the World Health Organization, see World Health Organization website.]

* 4/14: Day the Sikh Khalsa was created (1699). Men and women initiated into the Khalsa seek harmony with the Divine through introspection and service to the dispossessed. Both men and women are initiated equally. [Nanakshahi calendar]

* 4/16: Death of Guru Angad Dev Sahib, second Sikh guru, commemorated; accession of Guru Amar Das Sahib, third Sikh guru, commemorated. [Guru Angad lived 1504-1552; guru 1539-1552.] [Guru Amar Das lived 1479- 1574; guru 1552-1574.] [a/k/a Guru Angad Jyoti Jot, Guru Amar Das Gur Ghaddi] [Nanakshahi calendar]

* 4/16: Death of Guru Har Krishan Sahib, eighth Sikh guru, commemorated; accession of Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib, ninth Sikh guru, commemorated. [Guru Har Krishan lived 1656-1664; guru 1661-1664.] [Guru Tegh Bahadur lived 1621-1675; guru 1664-1675.] [a/k/a Guru Har Krishan Jyoti Jot, Guru Tegh Bahadur Gur Ghaddhi] [Nanakshahi calendar]

* 4/16 to 4/24: Navapad Oli--Jain period of fasting, recitation of holy scripture, and meditation on the principles of right knowledge, right faith, right conduct, and right penance. Jainas honor Arihantas (conquerors of passions), Siddhas (liberated souls), Acharyas (spiritual leaders), Upadhyayas (spiritual teachers), and Sadhus (renouncers). [a/k/a Navapada, Nav-pad Oli, Ayambil Oli, Aambil ki Ooli, Oli, Oliji, Siddha Chakra, Navadevata Puja, Vardhaman tap] [Chaitra Shukla 7-15]

* 4/18: Birthday of Guru Angad Dev Sahib, second Sikh guru, commemorated; birthday of Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib, ninth Sikh guru, commemorated. [Guru Angad lived 1504-1552; guru 1539-1552.] [Guru Tegh Bahadur lived 1621-1675; guru 1664-1675.] [a/k/a Guru Angad Parkash, Guru Tegh Bahadur Parkash] [Nanakshahi calendar]

* 4/22: Day commemorating the birth of Mahavira Vardhamana Jnatrputra (599 BCE), founder of the Jain faith. Jainas avoid aggression and practice harmlessness, simplicity, and charity to attain enlightenment and unity with Deity. [599-527 BCE: exact dates unknown] [a/k/a Mahavir Jayanti, Mahavira Jayanti, Mahavir Bhagwan's Janma Kalyanak] [Chaitra Shukla 13]

* 4/22: Earth Day--Day to honor the Earth and to meditate on Deity manifesting as Mother Earth. [For information about Earth Day activities, see Earthday Network website; Envirolink website; U.S. E.P.A. website for Earth Day.] [a/k/a International Earth Day, National Earth Day]

* 4/22: Day the world's nations guaranteed asylum to those persecuted in their homelands on account of their ethnicity, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a particular social group (1954). [Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees: signed 7/28/1951; entered into force 4/22/1954.] [Text of Convention] [For more information, see United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (U.N.H.C.R.) website; Human Rights Watch website.]

* 4/29: Day production and use of chemical weapons was outlawed world-wide (1997); day to mourn their victims. [Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons a/k/a Chemical Weapons Convention: signed 1/13/1993; entered into force 4/29/1997.] [Text of Convention] [26 countries are believed to have current or past chemical weapons programs. The U.S. is currently in the process of destroying its chemical weapons in compliance with the Treaty.] [Jainas and Sikhs should renounce the production, acquisition, and use of chemical weapons, and should demand destruction of all existing weapons.] [For more information, see Wikipedia article on Chemical Warfare. See also U.N. Office for Disarmament Affairs (U.N.O.D.A.) website; Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (O.P.C.W.) webpage; Federation of American Scientists (F.A.S.) Biological and Chemical Weapons Main Page.] [a/k/a Day of Remembrance for All Victims of Chemical Warfare] [See U.N. website on Chemical Warfare Victims Remembrance Day.]

* 5/2: Birthday of Guru Arjan Dev Sahib, fifth Sikh guru, commemorated. Guru Arjan compiled the Adi Granth, the sacred scripture of the Sikhs and built Harimandir, the Holy Temple of the Sikhs, at Amritsar. [Guru Arjan lived 1563-1606; guru 1581-1606.] [a/k/a Guru Arjan Parkash] [Nanakshahi calendar]

* 5/5: National Day of Prayer--Day to pray for freedom of expression, freedom of religion, and separation of religion and government throughout the world. [Freedom of expression, freedom of religion, and separation of religion and government is guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution's First Amendment. For text and information on the First Amendment, see Cornell University's Legal Information Institute website. For domestic organizations that advocate for freedom of religion, see Americans United for Separation of Church and State website; American Civil Liberty Union website. For information on religious freedom in countries around the world, see U.S. State Department's International Religious Freedom Report; Oslo Coalition on Freedom of Religion or Belief website.]

* 5/9: Day the world's nations committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, which are causing climate change (1992); day to mourn the failure to reduce these emissions. [Due to these emissions, the planet has already started to experience the impacts of climate change: increased extremes of summer dryness (heat waves, droughts, and wildfires) and winter wetness (flooding); an increase in extreme weather (hurricanes and tornados); an increase of sea level (loss of coastline and loss of fresh water); a decrease in glaciers and polar ice caps; an increase in volcanic eruptions and earthquakes; loss of human habitat; loss of food availability (increase in food costs); and loss of plant and animal species (on land, in the oceans, and on the ice caps).] [Framework Convention on Climate Change: adopted 5/9/1992; signed 6/4/1992; entered into force 3/21/1994.] [Text of Convention] [The Kyoto Protocol, which includes mandatory reduction goals, was adopted by 180 nations 12/11/1997, signed 3/16/1998, and entered into force 2/16/2005.] [Text of Protocol] [The U.S. has refused to ratify the Protocol. The U.S. is the biggest polluter on the planet. 25% of the planet's carbon dioxide emissions is emitted by the U.S.] [For more information, see U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change website; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change website; Center for International Environmental Law website; Greenpeace website; EarthJustice website; Columbia University website on Assessments of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change in Multiple Regions and Sectors. See also Wikipedia article on the Kyoto Protocol.] [Jainas and Sikhs should demand universal observance of practices that effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions.]

* 5/11: Akshay Tritiya--Final day of Jain fast; day of Jain pilgrimage. Jainas who have undertaken fasts are rewarded with sugar cane juice. [a/k/a Akshaya Tritiya, Akshaya Thritiya, Akshyatritiya, Akshay Trutiya, Akhatrij, Varshitap Prarana, Varshitap Parna] [Vaisakha Shukla 3]

* 5/22: Biological Diversity Day--Day to recognize that the survival of humanity is dependent on the survival of the many diverse species on the Earth: The extinction of other species will bring about our own extinction. [There has been a 40% loss of species between 1970 and 2000 due to habitat destruction, over-harvesting, and pollution. Our unsustainable consumption exceeds the biological capacity of the Earth by about 20%.] [See U.N. website on International Day for Biological Diversity.] [And see the Convention on Biological Diversity: signed 6/5/1992; entered into force 12/29/1993.] [Text of Convention] [And see the Convention on Biological Diversity website.] [The Convention on Biological Diversity was contracted to ensure conservation of biodiversity, sustainable use of biodiversity, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources.] [For more information, see Center for International Environmental Law website.] [Jainas and Sikhs should demand universal observance of practices that effectively preserve all species of life, and should demand an end to habitat destruction, over-harvesting, and pollution of all kinds.] [a/k/a International Day for Biological Diversity, World Biological Diversity Day, Biodiversity Day]

* 5/23: Birthday of Guru Amar Das Sahib, third Sikh guru, commemorated. [Guru Amar Das lived 1479-1574; guru 1552-1574.] [a/k/a Guru Amar Das Parkash] [Nanakshahi calendar]

* 6/11: Accession of Guru Hargobind Sahib, sixth Sikh guru, commemorated. [Guru Hargobind lived 1595-1644; guru 1606-1644.] [a/k/a Guru Hargobind Gur Ghaddhi] [Nanakshahi calendar]

* 6/16: Death of Guru Arjan Dev Sahib, fifth Sikh guru, commemorated. Sikhs visit gurdwaras (temples), where the Adi Granth is read, hymns are sung, and a communal meal is shared. [Guru Arjan lived 1563-1606; guru 1581-1606.] [a/k/a Guru Arjan Jyoti Jot] [Nanakshahi calendar]

* 6/26: Day torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment were outlawed world-wide (1987); day to mourn their continued existence. [Torture is an illegal, immoral, and ineffective means of interrogation and punishment. All officials have a legal duty and moral obligation to refuse an order to commit torture and to prevent it from occurring. Anyone who attempts, conspires, or commits torture is legally culpable. All acts of torture should be investigated, prosecuted, and punished. Neither war nor civil strife nor emergency justifies torture.] [Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment: adopted 12/10/1984; signed 2/4/1985; entered into force 6/26/1987.] [Text of Convention] [The Committee Against Torture monitors implementation of the Convention. For more information, see U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights website; Human Rights Watch website.] [Article 5 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Article 7 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) also guarantee freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.] [See U.N. website on Torture Victims' Day.] [Jainas and Sikhs should condemn torture, and should demand an end to the use of torture - of anyone for any purpose.] [a/k/a International Day in Support of Victims of Torture]

* 7/1: Day the world's nations committed to stop proliferation of nuclear weapons (1968); vigil to protest the production and use of all nuclear weapons world-wide. [Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: signed 7/1/1968; entered into force 3/5/1970.] [Text of Convention] [The U.S. used 2 atomic bombs on Japan in 8/1945: over 270,000 civilians died from the bombs and radiation. The original nuclear powers have failed to destroy their nuclear weapons in spite of the Treaty's requirement that they work towards disarmament. India and Pakistan have developed nuclear weapons in spite of the Treaty's prohibition; neither have ratified the Treaty. 9 countries are known to currently possess nuclear weapons, and other countries are attempting to develop or acquire them.] [Jainas and Sikhs should renounce the production, acquisition, and use of nuclear weapons, and should demand destruction of all existing weapons.] [For more information, see Wikipedia article on Nuclear Warfare. See also U.N. Office for Disarmament Affairs (U.N.O.D.A.) website; International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.) website. And see Federation of American Scientists (F.A.S.) nuke guide for information on India's nukes; Pakistan's nukes.]

* 7/1: Day endangered species became internationally protected (1975); day to celebrate all the world's creatures. [Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora a/k/a C.I.T.E.S.: signed/adopted 3/3/1973; entered into force 7/1/1975.] [Text of Convention] [For more information, see U.N. Environment Programme C.I.T.E.S. website; World Wildlife Fund (W.W.F.) website; Endangered Species Coalition website; National Wildlife Federation website; Defenders of Wildlife website; EarthJustice website; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website.]

* 7/2: Day discrimination on the basis of ethnicity, gender, and religion was prohibited in public accommodations, employment, and education (1964). [The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson.] [Pub. L. 88-352, 78 Stat. 241, 42 U.S.C. 2000a et seq.] [Text of statute] [Title II prohibits discrimination in public accommodations, Title III and Title VI prohibit discrimination by local governments, Title IV and Title IX prohibit discrimination in education, and Title VII prohibits discrimination in employment.] [For information on fighting discrimination based on "race" and "color", see U.S. E.E.O.C. website, and for information on fighting discrimination based on national origin, see U.S. E.E.O.C. website. For information on fighting discrimination based on gender (including sexual harassment), see U.S. E.E.O.C. website. For information on fighting discrimination based on religion, see U.S. E.E.O.C. website.]

* 7/5: Birthday of Guru Hargobind Sahib, sixth Sikh guru, commemorated.  [Guru Hargobind lived 1595-1644; guru 1606-1644.] [a/k/a Guru Hargobind Parkash] [Nanakshahi calendar]

* 7/23: Birthday of Guru Har Krishan Sahib, eighth Sikh guru, commemorated. [Guru Har Krishan lived 1656-1664; guru 1661-1664.] [a/k/a Guru Har Krishan Parkash] [Nanakshahi calendar]

* 8/15: Day India was partitioned into India and Pakistan, and Kashmir joined India over Pakistan's objection (1947); vigil for true peace, justice, and religious tolerance for all in South Asia. [About the Indo-Pakistani conflict] [For information on the nuclear problem, see Federation of American Scientists (FAS) website: Indo-Pakistani Conflict; India's nukes; Pakistan's nukes. For information on the history of the conflict, see Jammu & Kashmir : The Complete Knowledge Base. For information on human rights, see Human Rights Watch report: India; Human Rights Watch report: Pakistan; U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2004: India; U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2004: Pakistan.]

* 8/28: Opening of the Second World Parliament of Religions (1993), attended by members of all the world's religions. A Global Ethic was adopted that condemns hatred, aggression, oppression, and environmental abuses committed in the name of religion. [Text of Global Ethic] [See also website for the Parliament of the World's Religions.]

* 8/31 to 9/7: Paryusana--Jain festival of recitation of holy scripture, fasting, self-discipline, introspection, and reserve. Jainas grant forgiveness to others, ask forgiveness of others for harm done, whether knowingly or unknowingly, during the past year, and make vows to avoid causing future harm. The festival ends with a communal meal. [a/k/a Paryusan, Paryushan, Paryushan Parva, Paryushan Mahaparva, Pajjusan] [Ends at Samvatsari a/k/a Samvatatsari] [Bhadrapad Krishna 12-Bhadrapad Shukla 4]

* 9/1: Day commemorating the consecration of the Granth Sahib (Adi Granth) as holy scripture of the Sikhs in Harimandir, the Holy Temple, at Amritsar (1604). Sikhs celebrate by participating in religious processions and reading from the Adi Granth. [Nanakshahi calendar]

* 9/3: Day gender discrimination was outlawed world-wide (1981); day to mourn all manifestations of sexism. [Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women: adopted by U.N. General Assembly 12/18/1979; signed 3/1/1980; entered into force 9/3/1981.] [Text of Convention] [The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) monitors implementation of the Convention. For more information, see WomenWatch: United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women website; Feminist Majority Foundation website; Human Rights Watch website.] [Article 2 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Article 2 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) also prohibit discrimination on account of gender.]

* 9/16: Death of Guru Amar Das Sahib, third Sikh guru, commemorated; accession and death of Guru Ram Das Sodhi Sahib, fourth Sikh guru, commemorated; accession of Guru Arjan Dev Sahib, fifth Sikh guru, commemorated. [Guru Amar Das lived 1479-1574; guru 1552-1574.] [Guru Ram Das lived 1534-1581; guru 1574-1581] [Guru Arjan lived 1563- 1606; guru 1581-1606.] [a/k/a Guru Amar Das Jyoti Jot, Guru Ram Das Gur Ghaddhi, Guru Ram Das Jyoti Jot, Guru Arjan Gur Ghaddhi] [Nanakshahi calendar]

* 9/18: Accession of Guru Angad Dev Sahib, second Sikh guru, commemorated. [Guru Angad lived 1504-1552; guru 1539-1552.] [a/k/a Guru Angad Gur Ghaddhi] [Nanakshahi calendar]

* 9/21: International Day of Peace--Day to demonstrate for peace with justice throughout the world. [Peace can be realized where there is recognition of sovereignty/autonomy, compliance with just law, respectful behavior, responsible sharing of resources, cooperation to attain common goals, and reasonable compromise to enable all to meet lawful goals.] [See International Day of Peace website; International Day of Peace Vigil website.]

* 9/22: Death of Guru Nanak Dev Sahib, first Sikh guru, commemorated. Guru Nanak rejected caste and believed in the equality of all people. [Guru Nanak Dev 1469-1539] [a/k/a Guru Nanak Dev Jyoti Jot] [Nanakshahi calendar]

* 10/9: Birthday of Guru Ram Das Sodhi Sahib, fourth Sikh guru, commemorated. [Guru Ram Das lived 1534-1581; guru 1574-1581.] [a/k/a Guru Ram Das Parkash] [Nanakshahi calendar]

* 10/10 to 10/17: Navapad Oli--Jain period of fasting, recitation of holy scripture, and meditation on the principles of right knowledge, right faith, right conduct, and right penance. Jainas honor Arihantas (conquerors of passions), Siddhas (liberated souls), Acharyas (spiritual leaders), Upadhyayas (spiritual teachers), and Sadhus (renouncers). [a/k/a Navapada, Nav-pad Oli, Ayambil Oli, Aambil ki Ooli, Oli, Oliji, Siddha Chakra, Navadevata Puja, Vardhaman tap] [Ashwin Shukla 8-15]

* 10/18: Day the Clean Water Act was enacted (1972); day to give thanks for the water we drink. [Pub. L. 92-500, 86 Stat. 896, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.] [Text of statute] [For information on water pollution, see U.S. E.P.A. website; Clean Water America Alliance website; Clean Water Action website; EarthJustice website ; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website; American Rivers website.]

* 10/20: Day the Granth Sahib (Adi Granth), the holy scripture of the Sikhs, was recognized as eternal guru (1708). Sikhs believe the infinite and formless Deity should be sought within one's self. [a/k/a Adi Granth Gur Ghaddi] [Nanakshahi calendar]

* 10/20: Death of Guru Har Rai Sahib, seventh Sikh guru, commemorated; accession of Guru Har Krishan Sahib, eighth Sikh guru, commemorated. [Guru Har Rai lived 1630-1661; guru 1644-1661.] [Guru Har Krishan lived 1656-1664; guru 1661-1664.] [a/k/a Guru Har Rai Jyoti Jot, Guru Har Krishan Gur Ghaddhi] [Nanakshahi calendar]

* 10/21: Death of Guru Gobind Rai Singh Sahib, tenth Sikh guru, commemorated. [Guru Gobind Singh lived 1666-1708; guru 1675-1708.] [a/k/a Guru Gobind Singh Jyoti Jot] [Nanakshahi calendar]

* 10/21: Day military attacks on civilians were outlawed world-wide (1950); day to mourn all civilian victims of war. [All soldiers have a legal duty and a moral obligation to refuse an order to attack a noncombatant. Anyone who plans, orders, or carries out such an act is legally culpable. All attacks on noncombatants should be investigated, prosecuted, and punished.] [Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War a/k/a Fourth Geneva Convention: signed 8/12/1949; entered into force 10/21/1950.] [Text of Convention] [See Wikipedia article on Fourth Geneva Convention.] [Jainas and Sikhs should condemn all attacks on noncombatants, and should demand an end to them.]

* 11/2: Day commemorating the death of Mahavira Vardhamana Jnatrputra (527 BCE), founder of the Jain faith. [599-527 BCE: exact dates unknown] [a/k/a Mahavir Nirvana, Mahavira Nirvana, Mahavir Bhagwan's Nirvan Kalyanak] [Kartik Krishna 30]

* 11/4: World Community Day--Day for celebrating the unity behind diversity and remembering we are all one people - all children of the one universal Deity of many names and aspects.

* 11/6: Jnan Panchami--Day that Jainas celebrate knowledge, education, and holy books with recitations, meditation, and worship. [a/k/a Gnan Panchami, Gyan Panchami, Jnana Panchami] [Kartik Shukla 5]

* 11/15: Day commemorating the birth of Guru Nanak Dev Sahib (1469), founder of the Sikh faith. Sikhs attempt to merge the human spirit with the Divine Spirit by reciting Akal Purakh, one of Deity's sacred names.  [Guru Nanak Dev 1469-1539][a/k/a Guru Nanak Dev Parkash] [Nanakshahi calendar]

* 11/16: Tolerance Day--Day to promote harmony in diversity through mutual respect and understanding of all, regardless of gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity, religion, culture, language, nationality, or economic status. [Despite international and domestic laws providing for equal rights, freedoms, and protections, members of minority groups are still harassed and discriminated against because of societal intolerance arising from fear and ignorance.] [Intolerance often results from projection of "collective guilt": it is immoral to blame an entire group for the acts of a member unless the entire group empowered the member who acted or endorsed the acts.] [See U.N. website on International Day for Tolerance; Wikipedia article on Declaration of Principles on Tolerance.] [a/k/a International Day for Tolerance]

* 11/17: Fast for an Abundant World Harvest--Day to fast and commit to action to help prevent deaths from malnourishment world-wide. [For more information, see Oxfam America website.] [a/k/a Fast for a World Harvest]

* 11/24: Thanksgiving Day--Day to give thanks for the abundance of our land and for our food, clothes, shelter, and health.

* 11/24: Death of Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib, ninth Sikh guru, commemorated; accession of Guru Gobind Singh Sahib, tenth Sikh guru, commemorated. Sikhs visit gurdwaras (temples), where the Adi Granth is read, hymns are sung, and a communal meal is shared. [Guru Tegh Bahadur lived 1621- 1675; guru 1664-1675.] [Guru Gobind Singh lived 1666-1708; guru 1675-1708.] [a/k/a Guru Tegh Bahadur Jyoti Jot, Guru Gobind Singh Gur Ghaddhi] [Nanakshahi calendar]

* 12/1: World AIDS Day--Day to pray for healing of all those suffering with AIDS and HIV. [For information on World AIDS Day, see World AIDS Day website. For information about the global fight against AIDS, see UNAIDS website.]

* 12/10: Day the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted, and fundamental rights were recognized world-wide (1948). [The U.N. General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (U.D.H.R.) in Resolution 217 A(III).] [Text of Declaration] [For information on the history of the U.D.H.R., see Franklin & Eleanor Roosevelt Institute website. The U.D.H.R. is generally recognized as binding customary international law: all countries are required to respect the rights within it. In 1966, the concepts of the U.D.H.R. were expanded and drafted into two binding international treaties with enforcement mechanisms. The Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) is enforced by the Human Rights Committee. The Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (Text of Covenant) is enforced by the Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. For more information, see U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights website; Human Rights Watch website; Amnesty International website.] [Jainas and Sikhs should demand universal observance of all rights enumerated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights - for all people.] [a/k/a International Human Rights Day]

* 12/15: Day the Bill of Rights became part of the U.S. Constitution, guaranteeing fundamental rights to all (1791). [Text of Bill of Rights] [For more information about the Bill of Rights and the U.S. Constitution, see U.S. National Archives & Records Administration website and the Bill of Rights Institute website. For information on organizations that advocate for enforcement of rights and liberties in the Bill of Rights, see Center for Constitutional Rights website; American Civil Liberties Union website.] [a/k/a Bill of Rights Day]

* 12/17: Day the Clean Air Act was enacted (1963); day to give thanks for the air we breathe. [Pub. L. 88-206, 77 Stat. 392, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.] [Text of statute] [For information on air pollution, see U.S. E.P.A. website; American Lung Association website; EarthJustice website; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website.]

* 12/26: Day to mourn all those killed in the Asian tsunami (2004) and to aid those who survived.

* 12/28: Day the Endangered Species Act was enacted (1973); day to mourn those creatures already extinct. [Pub. L. 93-205, 87 Stat. 884, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.] [Text of statute] [For information on endangered species preservation, see U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service website; Endangered Species Coalition website; National Wildlife Federation website; Defenders of Wildlife website; EarthJustice website; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website.]

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[Jainism was founded by Mahavira Vardhamana Jnatrputra in 6th Century BCE India. Jainism is an ascetic religion in which the primary mandate is ahimsa (harmlessness) and the goal is to free the soul from the material existence accumulated from karma. The holy scripture of the Jainas include the Angas (Sermons and Dialogues of Mahavira) and the Digambara Texts. There are two monastic denominations of Jainas: the Svetambara and the Digambara. The former includes orders of women and recognizes spiritual equality; the latter eschew orders of women and clothing. Lay Jainas venerate the Tirthankaras (24 great Jain teachers) at Jain temples. Jain festivals and the Jain calendar (Vir Samvat) are based on the Indian lunisolar calendar (Bikrami calendar or Vikram Samvat). Some Jainas outside of India date the Jain holidays based on the Moon in India, while others date the Jain holidays based on the Moon at their respective locations. Consequently, some Jainas in the United States and Canada may celebrate some of these holidays 1 day before the Indian celebration.]

[Sikhism was founded by Guru Nanak Dev Sahib early in 16th Century India. He was succeeded by 9 other gurus. The holy scripture of the Sikhs is the Granth Sahib (Adi Granth). Sikhism is a blending of Bhakti (devotional) Hinduism and Muslim Sufism. Sikhs are monotheistic, do not use images in worship, and reject the caste system. Sikhs are exhorted to praise, charity, ablution, service, and prayer. Sikhs recite prayers 5 times daily and worship in a gurdwara. Sikhs celebrate some Hindu festivals as well as the birthdays and/or death days of the 10 gurus. There are different denominations of Sikhs. Some Sikhs are initiates in the Khalsa, a military order founded by Gobind Singh in 1699. Most Sikh holidays are dated on the fixed Nanakshahi calendar (Sikh calendar).]

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Excerpted from
THE MYSTIC'S WHEEL OF THE YEAR 2005
A Multifaith Calendar Reflecting Eco-Egalitarian Spirituality
© 2004 Marija Miovski
www.WheeloftheYear.com