Year 2005
Calendar
By Tradition...
Jewish - Kabbalah
Holidays - 2005
Christian -
Ecumenical Mysticism /
Wisdom Tradition

Holidays - 2005
Unitarian Universalist
Holidays - 2005
Muslim - Sufi
Holidays - 2005
Baha'i Holidays - 2005
±±±±±±±±±±
Hindu Holidays - 2005
Jain & Sikh
Holidays - 2005
Buddhist Holidays - 2005
Taoist & Shinto
Holidays - 2005
±±±±±±±±±±
African &
Middle-Eastern
Holidays:
Ancient Egyptian,
Santeria, Zoroastrian - 2005
Native American
(Iroquois, Navajo
& Pueblo)
& Meso American
(Inca, Mayan & Aztec)
Holidays - 2005
Pagan Holidays:
Old Religions of Europe
(Greek, Roman, Slavic,
Celtic, Anglo-Teutonic
& Norse) - 2005
±±±±±±±±±±
Deep Ecology /
Environmentalist
Dates - 2005
Social Justice /
Human Rights /
Feminist
Dates - 2005
Peace /
Disarmament
Dates - 2005
±±±±±±±±±±
Solar & Lunar Cycles,
Eclipses & Helions - 2005
Meteor Showers - 2005
Visible Planets - 2005
Astrological Periods - 2005
±±±±±±±±±±
Experiential Meditations
(for lunar cycles

throughout the year)
Empowering Meditations
Action Offerings
(to help the environment 
& further social justice)
Art as Meditation
±±±±±±±±±±±±±±±±±±±±
You are viewing the 2005 calendar. View a different year. Return home.

2005 Muslim - Sufi Holidays

* 1/1: World Peace Day--Day to meditate for peace throughout the world. [Universal Hour of Peace: 7:00-8:00 a.m. EST.]

* 1/4: Day ethnic discrimination was outlawed world-wide (1969); day to mourn all manifestations of racism. [Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination: signed/adopted 3/7/1966; entered into force 1/4/1969.] [Text of Convention] [The Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) monitors implementation of the Convention. For more information, see Human Rights Watch website.] [Article 2 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Article 2 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) also prohibit discrimination on account of race.] [The U.N. has designated 3/21 to 3/27 Week of Solidarity with the Peoples Struggling against Racism and Racial Discrimination.]

* 1/11 eve to 2/9 eve: Dhu al-Hijjah--Muslim month of pilgrimage (the Hajj) to honor Allah, the one genderless universal Deity, at the shrine of the holy Kaaba Stone in Mecca. [Mecca was also the site of the Old Arabic shrine to God Al-Lah and his daughters, Goddesses Al-Lat, Al-'Uzza, and Manat. See Qur'an Surah 53, Vs. 19-20. See also summaries of scholarship on the "Daughters of Allah" from the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement, from Wikipedia, from Sam Shamoun, and from Margi B. ] [a/k/a Zul-Hijjah]

* 1/12: Day genocide was outlawed world-wide (1951); day to mourn all victims of genocide. [Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide: signed/adopted 12/9/1948; entered into force 1/12/1951.] [Text of Convention] [For more information, see Prevent Genocide International website.] [In the name of Allah, and for love of Allah, Muslims should condemn all past genocides and, to prevent future genocides, should demand an end to persecution on account of any nationality, ethnicity, "race" or religion.]

* 1/16: World Religions Day--Day to contemplate all religions as different paths to the one universal Deity of many names and aspects.

* 1/17 eve to 1/24 eve: Hajj--Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca to honor Allah. [Pilgrims begin the Hajj by bathing, and men dress in special white clothing. On the first day, pilgrims walk/run 7 times counter-clockwise around the Kaaba and kiss the stone. With each circuit, pilgrims say: "In the name of Allah, Allah is Great, Allah is Great, Allah is Great, and praise be to Allah." Following completion of the 7 circuits, pilgrims pray in the mosque. Pilgrims then walk/run between the hills of Safa and Marwa, reciting prayers, and drink water from the sacred Zamzam well. (This area is now fully enclosed within a mosque.) On the second day, pilgrims go to Mina and pray, camping overnight. The third day, pilgrims go to the plain of Mt. Arafat, keep vigil, pray for forgiveness of transgressions and for strength, and recite the Qur'an near where Prophet Muhammad gave his last sermon. At sunset, pilgrims go to Muzdalifah to pray and sleep under the open sky. On the fourth day, pilgrims return to Mina to throw stones at pillars that represent the devil. Following this, pilgrims slaughter an animal in sacrifice (or have it done for them). The meat of the sacrificed animal is packaged and given to those in need around the world. Pilgrims' hair is then ritually shaved/cut. The fifth day, pilgrims return to Mecca and perform another circuit around the Kaaba. Pilgrims then return to Mina, to again throw stones at the pillars, remaining there for the sixth and seventh days. Pilgrims then return to Mecca, where they perform a final circuit around the Kaaba. After this, pilgrims again drink water from Zamzam well, kiss the threshold of the door of the Kaaba, and pray for forgiveness. Pilgrims leave the Kaaba walking backwards. Some pilgrims then travel to Medina and visit the tomb of Prophet Muhammad.] [Hajj-Eid al-Adha Truce: Time to cease all forms of conflict (at least temporarily), extend a greeting to your adversary, and share a meal for peace.] [a/k/a Al-Mukarinah, Al-Ihram, Umrat al-tammatu, Tawaf, Istlam, Sai, Yaum-al-Arafah, Day of Arafaat, Al-Wukuf, Rami al-Jimar, Stoning of the Devil, Eid al-Adha, Tawaf al-Ifadah, Tawaf al-Wida] [Dhu al-Hijjah 7-13]

* 1/20 eve to 1/23 eve: Eid al-Adha--Muslim festival of sacrifice to Allah for the good of all. [An animal is sacrificed. A portion is kept and eaten; a second portion is given to relatives, friends, and neighbors; and a third portion is given to the needy. Special prayers are recited throughout the festival. Muslims exchange greetings, visit one another, and give gifts to children.] [a/k/a Eid-al-Adha, Id al-Adha, Eidul-Adha] [Dhu al-Hijjah 10-12]

* 2/2: Day Iran ratified the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (1970). Despite ratification of this Treaty, in violation of this Treaty, Iran is believed to be attempting to develop nuclear weapons. [Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: signed 7/1/1968; entered into force 3/5/1970.] [Text of Convention] [The International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.) is authorized to enforce compliance with the Treaty. For more information, see I.A.E.A. website; Federation of American Scientists (F.A.S.) Nuke Guide.]

* 2/6: Day to mourn all the women and children who have been subjected to female genital mutilation. [Female Genital mutilation is also known as "F.G.M." and "female circumcision". F.G.M. results in severe pain, bleeding, disfigurement, urine retention, recurrent infections, painful menstruation, sexual dysfunction, infertility, and complications in childbirth.] [International Day of Zero Tolerance of Female Genital Mutilation and Cutting established on 2/6/2003 by the Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children (I.A.C.).] [See Gender Equity in Islam (which indicates F.G.M. predates Islam, is not mentioned in the Qur'an, and is not mandated by any hadith).] [For more information about F.G.M., see Female Genital and Sexual Mutilation - Bibliography.]

* 2/9 eve to 2/19 eve: Muharram/Muslim New Year (Year 1426) & A'ashurah. The Five Pillars of Islam are confession, prayer, alms-giving, fasting, and pilgrimage. [The Qur'an says: "O mankind! Lo! We have created you male and female, and have made you nations and tribes that ye may know one another. Lo! the noblest of you, in the sight of Allah, is the best in conduct." See Qur'an Surah 49 Vs. 13. And see the Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights and the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam. For scholarly discussions of human rights in Islam, see "Religious Human Rights in the Qur'an" by Riffat Hassan, "Human Rights in Islam" by 'Allamah Abu al-'A'la Mawdudi, and "Universal Human Rights and 'Human Rights in Islam'" by David Littman. See also the Islamic Human Rights Commission, an organization that advocates for justice for all. But see Human Rights Watch report: Saudi Arabia  (Saudi Arabia is the center of Sunni Islam) and Human Rights Watch report: Iran  (Iran is the center of Shi'a Islam).] [a/k/a Islamic New Year] [Muharram 1-10]

* 2/13: Birthday of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community (1835). He advocated a peaceable form of Islam that rejects violent jihad. He believed he was a divine reformer and the Mahdi, who would rid the world of evil in the end days. [Death day 5/26/1908] [Ahmadis, Sufis, and many Sunnis and Shi'as reject violent jihad. Jihad is conceived to be an inner struggle against evil of all kinds.]

* 2/18 eve to 2/19 eve: A'ashurah--Day Shi'a Muslims mourn the death of Al-Hussain ibn Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad and the third Shi'a Imam, at the Battle of Karbala in 680. [While Shi'as consider Ali ibn Abi Tahib (Al-Hussain ibn Ali's father and the Prophet Muhammad's son-in-law), to be the legitimate successor of the Prophet Muhammad, Sunnis do not. Disagreement over the succession caused civil war and a schism in Islam. Conflict between Sunnis and Shi'as continues. Vigil for peaceful coexistence of Sunnis and Shi'as and for religious tolerance of all Muslims by all Muslims.] [A'ashurah also commemorates the building of the Kaaba in Mecca in pre-Islamic times.] [A'ashurah is a fast day.] [a/k/a Ashura, Aashurah.] [Muharram 10]

* 3/1: Day the production and use of landmines was outlawed world-wide (1999); day to mourn their victims. [Protocol on Prohibition or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps, and Other Devices a/k/a Convention on Landmines a/k/a Mine Ban Treaty, amending the 1980 Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects: Treaty signed/adopted 10/10/1980; entered into force 12/2/1983; Protocol signed 12/3/1997; entered into force 3/1/1999.] [Text of Convention] [Pakistan is still manufacturing landmines; Iran may still be manufacturing landmines. Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and the U.S. have not ratified the Protocol.] [Landmines maim and kill civilians, including children. Those that survive endure a lifetime of hardship.] [In the name of Allah, and for love of Allah, Muslims should renounce the production and use of landmines, and should demand removal and destruction of all existing landmines.] [For more information, see International Campaign to Ban Landmines (I.C.B.L.) website; Landmine Monitor website; Adopt a Minefield website.]

* 3/8: International Women's Day--Day to mourn victims of gender-based oppression and misogyny (past and present), make peace, and celebrate women's empowerment. [See U.N. website on International Women's Day; A history of International Women's Day.]

* 3/9: Day slavery was outlawed world-wide (1927); day to mourn its continued existence. [Convention to Suppress the Slave Trade and Slavery: signed/adopted 9/25/1926; entered into force 3/9/1927.] [Text of Convention] See also the Protocol Amending the Slavery Convention. [Text of Protocol] [Article 4 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Article 8 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) also guarantee freedom from slavery.] [The U.N. has designated 8/23 International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and its Abolition. The U.N. has designated 12/2 International Day for the Abolition of Slavery.]

* 3/12: Day Pope John Paul II, in the name of the Catholic Church, asked Deity's forgiveness and apologized: to Christians of other denominations for intolerance to them, to Jews for anti-Semitism, to peoples of all non-Christian religions for intolerance and contempt for their religious traditions, to women for their humiliation and marginalization, and to the poor and the powerless for indifference to them (2000). [On the first Sunday in Lent in the Jubilee Year, as a part of the liturgy of the Mass inside St. Peter's Basilica, at the Vatican, Pope John Paul II made this public confession with the aid of seven cardinals and bishops. See Transcript of Confession and Request for Forgiveness.] [While the Catholic Church instigated the Crusades, forcibly converted non-Christians, and killed Christian dissidents, ordinary Catholics at the time had no say in it. Nor did any Christian alive today. While it is appropriate to expect atonement from the Catholic Church, it is immoral to blame all Catholics/Christians for the past abuses committed by the Church.]

* 3/18: Day the first woman served as imam, leading a public, mixed-gender, Muslim congregation in Jum'ah prayer, and delivering the sermon (2005). [Dr. Amina Wadud is an Islamic scholar, feminist, and professor at Virginia Commonwealth University. Dr. Wadud is the author of "Qur'an and Women: Rereading the Sacred Text from a Woman's Perspective," the first interpretive reading of the Qur'an by a woman. Dr. Wadud says that the Prophet Muhammad approved the practice of women leading mixed-gender prayer.] [See BBC News article.] [Since 3/18/2005, other women have served as imams for mixed-gender congregations.]

* 3/20: Vigil for peace, justice, and respect for the human rights of all in Iraq. [The Iraq War began on 3/20/2003.] [About the invasion of Iraq] [See Wikipedia article on the Iraq War.] [For information on the human rights situation in Iraq, see Human Rights Watch report: Iraq; Amnesty International report: Iraq.]

* 3/21: Nowruz--Persian New Year. [Celebrated by Shi'a and Sufi Muslims.] [A few days prior to Nowruz, the home is completely cleaned. A ceremonial haft seen table is set with seven symbolic dishes. They include sprouts (rebirth), garlic (health), pudding (abundant food), oleaster fruit (love and compassion), sumac berries (goodness), vinegar (patience to attain wisdom), and an apple (beauty). The table also generally includes a Qur'an, a mirror, candles, rose water, colored eggs, a hyacinth plant, a goldfish, and coins. On the night before Nowruz, a feast is held and a fire lit. On and following Nowruz, relatives, friends, and neighbors visit each other, and gifts are given to children.]

* 3/21: World Forest Day--Day to celebrate the complex living community of trees, plants, birds, and mammals that live in forests world-wide; day to give thanks for forests for cleaning the air of pollution. [Forest once covered 50% of the world. Today, forest covers only 30% of the world. Since 1600, 90% of the original forests that once covered the lower 48 states of the U.S. has been cleared away. Most deforestation of North America, Europe, the Middle East, and Asia occurred before 2000 and has stabilized. Deforestation continues to accelerate in South America and Africa. The rate of world deforestation averaged 5.2 million hectares per year between 2000 and 2010.] [For information about conservation of forests, see American Forests website; Forests.org website; International Union for Conservation of Nature (I.U.C.N.) website; World Wildlife Fund (W.W.F.) website; Greenpeace website. See also Statement of Principles for the Sustainable Management of Forests; Our Forests, Our Future: Summary Report of the World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development.] [In the name of Allah, and for love of Allah, Muslims should demand an end to deforestation, and should demand universal observance of sustainable management practices of the world's forests.] [a/k/a World Forestry Day]

* 3/23: Day the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community was founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1889). Ahmadi Muslims preach love for all, hatred for none. [See the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community website.]

* 3/26: Day production and use of biological weapons was outlawed world-wide (1975); day to mourn their victims. [Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction a/k/a Biological Weapons Convention: signed 4/10/1972; entered into force 3/26/1975.] [Text of Convention] [Iran and Syria are believed to currently have biological weapons programs in spite of the Treaty's prohibition. Iran has ratified the Treaty; Syria has not. In 2003, Syria proposed making the Middle East a region free of all weapons of mass destruction, but no commitments have been made to bring that about.] [In the name of Allah, and for love of Allah, Muslims should renounce the production, acquisition, and use of biological weapons, and should demand destruction of all existing weapons.] [For more information, see Wikipedia article on Biological Warfare. See also U.N. Office for Disarmament Affairs (U.N.O.D.A.) website; Federation of American Scientists (F.A.S.) Biological and Chemical Weapons Main Page.]

* 4/1: Vigil for freedom of religion in Iran. [Shi'a Islam is the official religion. While some other Muslim sects and non-Muslim religions are officially recognized, some are not. Those that are not recognized (particularly Baha'is) and even some that are recognized (particularly Sunni Muslims, Sufi Muslims, Zoroastrians, and evangelical Christians) are discriminated against, harassed, or persecuted. Jews are vilified.] [Islamic Republic Day is the day the Iranian people voted in 1979 to become an Islamic Republic. It occurs on 4/1 (3/31 in leap years).] [Articles 2 and 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Articles 2 and 18 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) guarantee freedom of religion and prohibit discrimination on account of religion.] [See U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2004: Iran.]

* 4/7: World Health Day--Day to pray for healing of all those chronically and seriously ill; day to advocate for adequate health care for all. [Day the World Health Organization (W.H.O.) was founded in 1948.] [For information on World Health Day, see World Health Organization website.] [For information on the World Health Organization, see World Health Organization website.]

* 4/9 eve to 4/10 eve: Remembrance day for Rabi'a al-bint Isma'il 'Adawiya (717-801), Sufi saint and preacher; she loved Deity passionately. Sufis seek Truth through love, wisdom, and action. [Rabi'a lived in Iraq. She rejected worship motivated by the desire for heavenly reward or the fear of punishment; she insisted that love is the sole valid form of worship.] [See article on Rabi'a.] [a/k/a Rabi'a al-'Adawiyya al-Qaysiyya and Rabi'a al-Basri] [Rabi' al-Awwal 1] [Birthday & death day unknown]

* 4/12: Day Saudi Arabia's Islamic authority condemned forced marriage as un-Islamic and banned the practice (2005). [Grand Mufti Sheikh Abdul Aziz al-Sheikh, who heads Saudi Arabia's Council of Senior Ulema (Scholars), said forced marriage is against Islamic law and those responsible for it should be jailed. He said: "Forcing a woman to marry someone she does not want and preventing her from wedding that whom she chooses...is not permissible" under Islamic law. "Anyone who insists on forcing a woman...to marry against her will is disobeying God and His Prophet (Muhammad)."] [See BBC News article.] [See also fatwa against forced marriage by Sheikh Ahmad Kutty, Islamic scholar at the Islamic Institute of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.]

* 4/20 eve to 4/21 eve: Mawlid al-Nabi--Day commemorating the birth of Muslim Prophet Muhammad (570). He conceived Deity to be a compassionate, genderless unity. [While many Sufis consider Allah to be gender-inclusive, and some Muslims of all denominations consider Allah to be gender-neutral, most Muslims consider Allah to be exclusively male.] [a/k/a Mawlid an-Nabi, Milad-un-Nabi, Miladun-Nabi] [Rabi' al-Awwal 12]

* 4/22: Earth Day--Day to honor the Earth and to meditate on Deity manifesting as Mother Earth. [For information about Earth Day activities, see Earthday Network website; Envirolink website; U.S. E.P.A. website for Earth Day.] [a/k/a International Earth Day, National Earth Day]

* 4/22: Day the world's nations guaranteed asylum to those persecuted in their homelands on account of their ethnicity, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a particular social group (1954). [Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees: signed 7/28/1951; entered into force 4/22/1954.] [Text of Convention] [For more information, see United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (U.N.H.C.R.) website; Human Rights Watch website.]

* 4/29: Day production and use of chemical weapons was outlawed world-wide (1997); day to mourn their victims. [Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons a/k/a Chemical Weapons Convention: signed 1/13/1993; entered into force 4/29/1997.] [Text of Convention] [Iran and Syria are believed to currently possess chemical weapons in spite of the Treaty's prohibition. Iran has ratified the Treaty; Syria has not. The U.S. and Libya are currently in the process of destroying their chemical weapons in compliance with the Treaty. In 2003, Syria proposed making the Middle East a region free of all weapons of mass destruction, but no commitments have been made to bring that about.] [In the name of Allah, and for love of Allah, Muslims should renounce the production, acquisition, and use of chemical weapons, and should demand destruction of all existing weapons.] [For more information, see Wikipedia article on Chemical Warfare. See also U.N. Office for Disarmament Affairs (U.N.O.D.A.) website; Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (O.P.C.W.) webpage; Federation of American Scientists (F.A.S.) Biological and Chemical Weapons Main Page.] [a/k/a Day of Remembrance for All Victims of Chemical Warfare] [See U.N. website on Chemical Warfare Victims Remembrance Day.]

* 5/5: National Day of Prayer--Day to pray for freedom of expression, freedom of religion, and separation of religion and government throughout the world. [Freedom of expression, freedom of religion, and separation of religion and government is guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution's First Amendment. For text and information on the First Amendment, see Cornell University's Legal Information Institute website. For domestic organizations that advocate for freedom of religion, see Americans United for Separation of Church and State website; American Civil Liberty Union website. For information on religious freedom in countries around the world, see U.S. State Department's International Religious Freedom Report; Oslo Coalition on Freedom of Religion or Belief website.]

* 5/9: Day the world's nations committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, which are causing climate change (1992); day to mourn the failure to reduce these emissions. [Due to these emissions, the planet has already started to experience the impacts of climate change: increased extremes of summer dryness (heat waves, droughts, and wildfires) and winter wetness (flooding); an increase in extreme weather (hurricanes and tornados); an increase of sea level (loss of coastline and loss of fresh water); a decrease in glaciers and polar ice caps; an increase in volcanic eruptions and earthquakes; loss of human habitat; loss of food availability (increase in food costs); and loss of plant and animal species (on land, in the oceans, and on the ice caps).] [Framework Convention on Climate Change: adopted 5/9/1992; signed 6/4/1992; entered into force 3/21/1994.] [Text of Convention] [The Kyoto Protocol, which includes mandatory reduction goals, was adopted by 180 nations 12/11/1997, signed 3/16/1998, and entered into force 2/16/2005.] [Text of Protocol] [The U.S. has refused to ratify the Protocol. The U.S. is the biggest polluter on the planet. 25% of the planet's carbon dioxide emissions is emitted by the U.S.] [For more information, see U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change website; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change website; Center for International Environmental Law website; Greenpeace website; EarthJustice website; Columbia University website on Assessments of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change in Multiple Regions and Sectors. See also Wikipedia article on the Kyoto Protocol.] [In the name of Allah, and for love of Allah, Muslims should demand universal observance of practices that effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions.]

* 5/19 eve to 5/20 eve: Day commemorating the death of Abdul Qadir Jilani (1166), Sufi saint, who was renown for his compassion, particularly for the poor. [Jilani (Gilani) lived in Iraq, was founder of the Qadiri order, and was known as Ghauth al-'Azam, the "Great Helper". On this day annually, members of his order recite the Qur'an and distribute food to pilgrims and the poor in his honor. According to the Qadiris, he was 'born of love, lived in a perfect way, and died having achieved the perfection of love."] [See articles on Abdul Qadir Jilani.] [a/k/a Abdul Qadir Jilani Urs] [Rabi' al-Thani 11] [Born 1077; birth celebrated on Sha'ban 30 or Ramadan 1]

* 5/22: Biological Diversity Day--Day to recognize that the survival of humanity is dependent on the survival of the many diverse species on the Earth: The extinction of other species will bring about our own extinction. [There has been a 40% loss of species between 1970 and 2000 due to habitat destruction, over-harvesting, and pollution. Our unsustainable consumption exceeds the biological capacity of the Earth by about 20%.] [See U.N. website on International Day for Biological Diversity.] [And see the Convention on Biological Diversity: signed 6/5/1992; entered into force 12/29/1993.] [Text of Convention] [And see the Convention on Biological Diversity website.] [The Convention on Biological Diversity was contracted to ensure conservation of biodiversity, sustainable use of biodiversity, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources.] [For more information, see Center for International Environmental Law website.] [In the name of Allah, and for love of Allah, Muslims should demand universal observance of practices that effectively preserve all species of life, and should demand an end to habitat destruction, over-harvesting, and pollution of all kinds.] [a/k/a International Day for Biological Diversity, World Biological Diversity Day, Biodiversity Day]

* 6/5 eve to 6/6 eve: Celebration day for Muhyi ad-Din Ibn El-Arabi (d. 1240), Sufi saint who honored Deity as a unity manifested in all Nature, both genders, and countless forms. He theorized about divine immanence ("Allah is Nature, and Nature Allah"), divine transcendence ("Allah is above Nature, which Allah created"), and the unity of being. [El-Arabi lived in Spain and wrote "Bezels of Wisdom" and "Meccan Revelations".] [See article on Muhyi ad-Din Ibn El-Arabi.] [For scholarly discussions of the obligation to preserve the environment in Islam, see "Towards an Islamic Jurisprudence of the Environment" by Prof. Mustafa Abu-Sway; "Islam and Ecology: A Bestowed Trust Inviting Balanced Stewardship" by Prof. Frederick M. Denny; "Man and Ecology: An Islamic Perspective" by Islam From Inside; "Islam and Ecology" by Marjorie Hope and James Young; and "Islam and the Environment" by Gar Smith. See also Islamic Foundation for Ecology and Environmental Sciences, an organization that advocates for environmental healing.] [a/k/a Muhyi ad-Din Ibn El-Arabi Wissal] [Rabi' al-thani 28] [Birthday & death day unknown]

* 6/8: Death day of Prophet Muhammad (632), mystical Father of Islam. [Death commemorated on Safar 28.] [Born 570: exact date unknown]

* 6/17: Day a fatwa condemned "honor killings" as un-Islamic and banned the practice (2002). [An "honor killing" is the killing of a woman by her relatives because she has been raped, is suspected of sexual activity outside of marriage, is pursuing unauthorized courtship, has refused an arranged marriage, or is seeking a divorce.] [Sheikh Atiyyah Saqr, former head of the al-Azhar University Fatwa Committee said "Islam strictly prohibits murder and killing without legal justification. Allah, Most High, says, 'Whoso slayeth a believer of set purpose, his reward is Hell for ever. Allah is wroth against him and He hath cursed him and prepared for him an awful doom.' (An-Nisa': 93) The so-called 'honor killing' is based on ignorance and disregard of morals and laws, which cannot be abolished except by disciplinary punishments...[P]eople are not entitled to take the law in their own hands, for it's the responsibility of the Muslim State and its concerned bodies to maintain peace, security, etc., and to prevent chaos and disorder from creeping into the Muslim society."] [Islamic fatwa condemning "honor killings"] [See also "Honor Killings in the Name of Religion" by Mohamad K. Yusuff (Islamic Research Foundation International); United Nations Report on Honor Killings.] 

* 6/17: Day Pakistan disenfranchised Ahmadi Muslims by requiring them to declare themselves to be non-Muslim in order to vote (2002). Vigil for the end of persecution of Ahmadis by other Muslims and for religious tolerance of all Muslims by all Muslims. [Some Muslims consider Ahmadis to be heretics. Ahmadis are persecuted in Pakistan, Egypt, and Indonesia; they are harassed in Bangladesh and Malaysia. See Ahmadi website documenting their mistreatment.] [Articles 2 and 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Articles 2 and 18 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) guarantee freedom of religion (and freedom from coercion that would impair freedom of religion) and prohibit discrimination on account of religion.]

* 6/26: Day torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment were outlawed world-wide (1987); day to mourn their continued existence. [Torture is an illegal, immoral, and ineffective means of interrogation and punishment. All officials have a legal duty and moral obligation to refuse an order to commit torture and to prevent it from occurring. Anyone who attempts, conspires, or commits torture is legally culpable. All acts of torture should be investigated, prosecuted, and punished. Neither war nor civil strife nor emergency justifies torture.] [Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment: adopted 12/10/1984; signed 2/4/1985; entered into force 6/26/1987.] [Text of Convention] [The Committee Against Torture monitors implementation of the Convention. For more information, see U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights website; Human Rights Watch website.] [Article 5 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Article 7 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) also guarantee freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.] [See U.N. website on Torture Victims' Day.] [In the name of Allah, and for love of Allah, Muslims should condemn torture, and should demand an end to the use of torture - of anyone for any purpose.] [a/k/a International Day in Support of Victims of Torture]

* 6/30: Vigil for peace, democracy, religious freedom, ethnic equality, and the end of slavery and genocide in Sudan. [About the Darfur crisis] [For more information on the Darfur conflict, see Global Security website and Wikipedia article on War in Darfur. And for information on the conflict between north and south Sudan, see Wikipedia article on the Second Sudanese Civil War (which resulted in a peace agreement on 1/9/2005). For information on the human rights situation, see Human Rights Watch report: Sudan; U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2004: Sudan.]

* 7/1: Day the world's nations committed to stop proliferation of nuclear weapons (1968); vigil to protest the production and use of all nuclear weapons world-wide. [Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: signed 7/1/1968; entered into force 3/5/1970.] [Text of Convention] [The U.S. used 2 atomic bombs on Japan in 8/1945: over 270,000 civilians died from the bombs and radiation. The original nuclear powers have failed to destroy their nuclear weapons in spite of the Treaty's requirement that they work towards disarmament. Pakistan has developed nuclear weapons in spite of the Treaty's prohibition; Pakistan has not ratified the Treaty. 9 countries are known to currently possess nuclear weapons, and other countries (including Iran) are believed to be attempting to develop or acquire them. (Iran has ratified the Treaty.) In 2003, Syria proposed making the Middle East a region free of all weapons of mass destruction, but no commitments have been made by Iran, Syria, or Israel to make the Middle East a nuclear-free zone.] [In the name of Allah, and for love of Allah, Muslims should renounce the production, acquisition, and use of nuclear weapons, and should demand destruction of all existing weapons.] [For more information, see Wikipedia article on Nuclear Warfare. See also U.N. Office for Disarmament Affairs (U.N.O.D.A.) website; International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.) website. And see Federation of American Scientists (F.A.S.) nuke guide for information on Pakistan's nukes; Iran's nukes.]

* 7/1: Day endangered species became internationally protected (1975); day to celebrate all the world's creatures. [Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora a/k/a C.I.T.E.S.: signed/adopted 3/3/1973; entered into force 7/1/1975.] [Text of Convention] [For more information, see U.N. Environment Programme C.I.T.E.S. website; World Wildlife Fund (W.W.F.) website; Endangered Species Coalition website; National Wildlife Federation website; Defenders of Wildlife website; EarthJustice website; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website.]

* 7/2: Day discrimination on the basis of ethnicity, gender, and religion was prohibited in public accommodations, employment, and education (1964). [The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson.] [Pub. L. 88-352, 78 Stat. 241, 42 U.S.C. 2000a et seq.] [Text of statute] [Title II prohibits discrimination in public accommodations, Title III and Title VI prohibit discrimination by local governments, Title IV and Title IX prohibit discrimination in education, and Title VII prohibits discrimination in employment.] [For information on fighting discrimination based on "race" and "color", see U.S. E.E.O.C. website, and for information on fighting discrimination based on national origin, see U.S. E.E.O.C. website. For information on fighting discrimination based on gender (including sexual harassment), see U.S. E.E.O.C. website. For information on fighting discrimination based on religion, see U.S. E.E.O.C. website.]

* 7/11: Day Srebrenica, Bosnia, fell to attacking Serbs (1995), beginning a massacre of thousands of civilians because of their ethnicity and religion; vigil for true peace, justice, religious tolerance, and respect for the human rights of all in the Balkans. [Though it was declared a U.N. "safe haven," Srebrenica, Bosnia, was attacked and fell to Orthodox Christian Serb aggressors on 7/11/1995. 8,000-15,000 civilian Muslim Slavs were killed there from 7/12-7/17/1995 because of their ethnicity and religion. On 8/2/2001, Bosnian Serb General Radislav Krstic was convicted of genocide for his part in the massacre. Former Yugoslavian President Slobodan Milosevic is now being tried for war crimes, genocide, and crimes against humanity for his part in the massacre at Srebenica and the "ethnic cleansing" elsewhere in Bosnia, Croatia, and Kosovo.] [For more information, see  Report of the Secretary General Pursuant to General Assembly Resolution 53/35 (1998). See also Peace Pledge Union article on the Bosnian Genocide. For information on the human rights situation today, see Human Rights Watch report: Serbia; Human Rights Watch report: Bosnia-Herzegovina; Human Rights Watch report: Croatia; U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2004: Serbia-Montenegro; U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2004: Bosnia-Herzegovina; U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2004: Croatia.] [While some Orthodox Christians participated in this massacre, most Christians then and now were horrified by it. It is immoral to hold all Christians responsible for the acts of a few.]

* 8/6 eve to 8/7 eve: Remembrance day for Sufi saint Haji Bektash (d. 1337). He initiated women into his order equally with men and advocated gender equality in Islamic society. [The Bektashi order is also open to all ethnicities, nationalities, and classes. See Bektashi Sufi Order website. The Qur'an says: "All are equal, regardless of gender or ethnicity; nobility is shown by conduct alone." See Qur'an Surah 49 Vs. 13.] [Rajab 1] [Birthday & death day unknown]

* 8/15: Day India was partitioned into India and Pakistan, and Kashmir joined India over Pakistan's objection (1947); vigil for true peace, justice, and religious tolerance for all in South Asia. [About the Indo-Pakistani conflict] [For information on the nuclear problem, see Federation of American Scientists (F.A.S.) website: Indo-Pakistani Conflict; India's nukes; Pakistan's nukes. For information on the history of the conflict, see Jammu & Kashmir : The Complete Knowledge Base. For information on the human rights situation today, see Human Rights Watch report: India; Human Rights Watch report: Pakistan; U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2004: India; U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2004: Pakistan.]

* 8/17: Vigil for peace, justice, religious tolerance, and respect for the human rights of all in Indonesia. [Since 1/1/1999, due to forced conversions to Islam and destruction of Christian churches, there has been interreligious violence between Muslims and Christians in Indonesia.] [Indonesia Independence Day is 8/17.] [Articles 2 and 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Articles 2 and 18 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) guarantee freedom of religion and prohibit discrimination on account of religion.] [For more information, see Human Rights Watch report: Indonesia; U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2004: Indonesia.]

* 8/25: Day to mourn the Iraqi attacks on civilian Kurds because of their ethnicity (1988); vigil for justice and respect for the human rights of the Kurdish people. [On 8/25/1988, Saddam Hussein's Iraqi government began the fourth Anfal campaign against the Kurds in Northern Iraq using chemical weapons. The first attack occurred on 3/16/1988. 60,000-100,000 Kurds were killed during these campaigns.] [See Human Rights Watch report: Genocide in Iraq.]

* 8/28: Opening of the Second World Parliament of Religions (1993), attended by members of all the world's religions. A Global Ethic was adopted that condemns hatred, aggression, oppression, and environmental abuses committed in the name of religion. [Text of Global Ethic] [See also website for the Parliament of the World's Religions.]

* 9/1 eve: Laylat al-Mi'raj--Commemorates the night journey of Muslim Prophet Muhammad to heaven. [a/k/a Lailatul-Miraj, Isra Miraj, Miraj al-Nabi, Israa', Me'raj] [night following Rajab 26]

* 9/3: Day gender discrimination was outlawed world-wide (1981); day to mourn all manifestations of sexism. [Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women: adopted by U.N. General Assembly 12/18/1979; signed 3/1/1980; entered into force 9/3/1981.] [Text of Convention] [The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) monitors implementation of the Convention. For more information, see WomenWatch: United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women website; Feminist Majority Foundation website; Human Rights Watch website.] [Article 2 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Article 2 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) also prohibit discrimination on account of gender.]

* 9/11: Day terrorists killed over 3,000 innocent civilians of many ethnicities and religions from 86 nations (2001); day to mourn all victims of terrorism. [Al-Qaeda terrorists, using passenger planes, struck the World Trade Center (in New York, N.Y.) and the Pentagon (outside Washington, D.C.). Because passengers on a fourth plane resisted, to prevent it from being used as a weapon, it was crashed near Shanksville, P.A.] [For statements by Muslims around the world condemning the terrorist attacks of 9/11/2001 as horrific and un-Islamic, see Muslim Voices Against Extremism and Terrorism; Islamic Statements Against Terrorism; Muslims Condemn Terrorist Attacks.] [Fatwas (religious edicts) condemning terrorism have been issued by Muslim clerics. Saudi Arabia's leading Islamic authority (the Permanent Committee of Religious Research and Ifta) issued a fatwa against terrorism on 6/7/2004, contending that terrorism is forbidden under Islam and constitutes a severe form of injustice. The Spanish Islamic Commission issued a fatwa condemning terrorism on 3/11/2005, and called Osama bin Laden an apostate. The U.K.'s Sunni Council issued a fatwa against terrorism on 7/17/2005, indicating that killing others is a sin and that suicide bombers will go to hell. The British Muslim Forum issued a fatwa condemning terrorism on 7/18/2005, indicating that terrorist acts are contrary to Islam. The Fiqh Council of North America issued a fatwa against terrorism on 7/28/2005, indicating that all terrorist acts targeting civilians are forbidden in Islam.] [Al-Qaeda terrorists have struck other targets. See list of Al-Qaeda's terrorist attacks.] [For international efforts against terrorism (which constitutes a crime against humanity), see U.N. Action to Counter Terrorism.] [For incidents in which governments have used the fight against terrorism as an excuse to suppress civil liberties, see Human Rights Watch website.] [While some Muslims commit terrorist acts, most Muslims do not; and most Muslims do not authorize or approve of the terrorist acts committed. While it is appropriate to hold accountable the individuals, organizations, and governments that commit or fund the terrorists acts, it is immoral to blame all Muslims for the acts of a few.]

* 9/13: Day Israelis and Palestinians committed to peaceful coexistence (1993); vigil for true peace, justice, religious tolerance, and equal rights for all in the Middle East. [Declaration of Principles (a/k/a Oslo Accords) was signed by Israel & the P.L.O. on 9/13/1993.] [See Wikipedia article on the Oslo Accords. See also The History of the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict.]

* 9/18 eve: Nisfu Sha'ban--Muslim night of repentance for all harm done. [The following day, Allah determines the fate of all for the coming year.] [For views on attaining inner peace and world peace through Islam, see "Islam and World Peace - Explanations of a Sufi" by M. R. Bawa Muhaiyaddeen and "The Quran and World Peace" by Dr. Israr Ahmad. See also Muslim Peace Fellowship, an organization that advocates use of non-violent means to attain justice and positive social transformation.] [a/k/a Nisf Sha'ban, Lailatul-Bara'at, Lailutul-Bara'at] [night following Sha'ban 14]

* 9/21: International Day of Peace--Day to demonstrate for peace with justice throughout the world. [Peace can be realized where there is recognition of sovereignty/autonomy, compliance with just law, respectful behavior, responsible sharing of resources, cooperation to attain common goals, and reasonable compromise to enable all to meet lawful goals.] [See International Day of Peace website; International Day of Peace Vigil website.]

* 9/23: Vigil for freedom of religion in Saudi Arabia. [Sunni Islam is the official religion. Members of other Muslim sects (Shi'a, Sufi, and Ahmadi Muslims) and non-Muslim religions cannot publicly practice their religions; private worship is also subject to punishment. Most non-Muslims in Saudi Arabia are guest workers. They include Christians, Jews, Hindus, Buddhists, and Sikhs. While many countries have official religions, most allow minority religions some rights and freedoms.] [9/23 is Saudi Arabia's National Day.] [Articles 2 and 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Text of Declaration) and Articles 2 and 18 of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) guarantee freedom of religion and prohibit discrimination on account of religion.] [See U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2004: Saudi Arabia.]

* 9/30: Birthday of Jalal ad-Din Rumi (1207), Sufi saint and poet. He believed the soul to be one with Deity, and thought ecstatic experience of Deity could be attained with music, whirling dance, and chanting Deity's holy names. [Rumi was born in Afghanistan, but later lived in Turkey, where he founded the Mevlevi Order, known as the "Whirling Dervishes".] [See article on Jalal ad-Din Rumi. And see Mevlevi Order website, Mevlevi Order of America website, and Threshold Society website.] [Death day 12/17/1273] [Wissal on Jumada al-thani 5.]

* 10/2: Birthday of Mahatma Mohandas Gandhi (1869), Hindu advocate for human rights and self-reliance, who practiced active non-violent resistance to injustice. [Gandhi envisioned a world where women and untouchables would be empowered and respected. Gandhi envisioned a world where members of all faiths (including Hindus, Muslims, and Christians) would live harmoniously together. ] [Death day 1/30/1948] [a/k/a Gandhi Jayanti]

* 10/4 eve to 11/3 eve: Ramadan--Muslim month of purification by self-reflection, fasting from sunrise to sunset, peace-making, and helping those in need. [Muslims refrain from eating, drinking, smoking, and sex. A communal banquet (iftar) is shared each night after sunset. The entire Qur'an is read or recited during Ramadan.] [The ill, the elderly, the young, pregnant women, nursing women, and menstruating women are exempt from the fast.] [Ramadan Truce (through Eid al-Fitr): Time to cease all forms of conflict (at least temporarily), extend a greeting to your adversary, and share an iftar for peace.]

* 10/7: Vigil for peace, justice, and respect for the human rights of all in Afghanistan. [The Afghan War began on 10/7/2001.] [See Wikipedia article on War in Afghanistan. [For information on the human rights situation in Afghanistan, see Human Rights Watch report: Afghanistan; Amnesty International report: Afghanistan.]

* 10/13 eve to 10/14 eve: Remembrance day for Khadijah bint Khuwaylid (d. 619 or 623), Mother of Islam - first convert to Islam, partner of Prophet Muhammad in monogamous marriage, mother of Fatimah, and liberated businesswoman. [The Prophet Muhammad did not take a second wife during Khadijah's lifetime. Khadijah was intelligent and compassionate. She was known for her financial support of Islam, for her generosity to the poor, for her protection of orphans, and for freeing slaves.] [See Wikipedia article on Khadijah bint Khuwaylid.] [For scholarly discussions of gender equality in Islam, see "Members, One of Another: Gender Equality & Justice in Islam" by Riffat Hassan and "Gender Equity in Islam" by Jamal Badawi Ph.D. For an examination of the feminist movement in Islam, see "Inside the Gender Jihad: Women's Reform in Islam" by Amina Wadud.] [a/k/a Khadijah al-Kubra (the Great)] [Ramadan 10] [Born in 555, 564, or 565. Some sources say she died on the 10th or 11th day of Ramadan.]

* 10/18: Day the Clean Water Act was enacted (1972); day to give thanks for the water we drink. [Pub. L. 92-500, 86 Stat. 896, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.] [Text of statute] [For information on water pollution, see U.S. E.P.A. website; Clean Water America Alliance website; Clean Water Action website; EarthJustice website ; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website; American Rivers website.]

* 10/21: Day military attacks on civilians were outlawed world-wide (1950); day to mourn all civilian victims of war. [All soldiers have a legal duty and a moral obligation to refuse an order to attack a noncombatant. Anyone who plans, orders, or carries out such an act is legally culpable. All attacks on noncombatants should be investigated, prosecuted, and punished.] [Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War a/k/a Fourth Geneva Convention: signed 8/12/1949; entered into force 10/21/1950.] [Text of Convention] [See Wikipedia article on Fourth Geneva Convention.] [In the name of Allah, and for love of Allah, Muslims should condemn all attacks on noncombatants, and should demand an end to them.]

* 10/30 eve: Laylat al-Qadr/Night of Power--Commemorates the first revelation of the Qur'an to Muslim Prophet Muhammad by the Angel Gabriel in 610 CE. The Qur'an says: "Let there be no compulsion in religion." [See Qur'an Surah 2 Vs. 256. For scholarly discussions of freedom of religion in Islam, see "Freedom of Religion in Islam" by Ali Gomaa, Grand Mufti of Egypt; "Freedom of Religion" by Dr. Mohammad Hashim Kamali, Professor of Islamic law; "Freedom of Religion and Belief in Islam" by Mohsen Kadivar; "Religious Liberty: A Muslim Perspective" by Mohamed Talbi; and "Freedom of Religion in Islam" by Brig. Gen. (Retd.) Syed Ashrafuzzaman. But see U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2004: Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia is the center of Sunni Islam); and U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report for 2004: Iran (Iran is the center of Shi'a Islam).] [a/k/a Lailatul-Qadr] [night following Ramadan 26]

* 11/3 eve to 11/6 eve: Eid al-Fitr--Muslim festival celebrating the end of Ramadan. [Muslims break the fast with sweets and celebrate with large meals. Special prayers are recited and offerings are made to help the needy. Muslims ask for Allah's forgiveness, peace, and blessings for all living beings around the world; they also extend forgiveness to those who have harmed them. Muslims exchange greetings, visit one another, and give gifts to children.] [a/k/a Eid-al-Fitr, Id al-Fitr, Eidul-Fitr] [Shawwal 1-3]

* 11/4: World Community Day--Day for celebrating the unity behind diversity and remembering we are all one people - all children of the one universal Deity of many names and aspects.

* 11/6: Day a Muslim woman first defied a ban on women entering the mosque by the front door and praying in the main hall (2003). [In the Morgantown, West Virginia, mosque, as in many mosques in the United States and elsewhere, women are required to enter by a back door and pray in a separate room. Asra Nomani, the author of "Standing Alone in Mecca", began a movement to desegregate mosques throughout the United States. See media accounts of Asra Nomani's efforts.] [For scholarly discussions of gender equality in Islam, see "Members, One of Another: Gender Equality & Justice in Islam" by Riffat Hassan and "Gender Equity in Islam" by Jamal Badawi Ph.D. For an examination of the feminist movement in Islam, see "Inside the Gender Jihad: Womens Reform in Islam" by Amina Wadud.]

* 11/16: Tolerance Day--Day to promote harmony in diversity through mutual respect and understanding of all, regardless of gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity, religion, culture, language, nationality, or economic status. [Despite international and domestic laws providing for equal rights, freedoms, and protections, members of minority groups are still harassed and discriminated against because of societal intolerance arising from fear and ignorance.] [Intolerance often results from projection of "collective guilt": it is immoral to blame an entire group for the acts of a member unless the entire group empowered the member who acted or endorsed the acts.] [See U.N. website on International Day for Tolerance; Wikipedia article on Declaration of Principles on Tolerance.] [a/k/a International Day for Tolerance]

* 11/17: Fast for an Abundant World Harvest--Day to fast and commit to action to help prevent deaths from malnourishment world-wide. [For more information, see Oxfam America website.] [a/k/a Fast for a World Harvest]

* 11/24: Thanksgiving Day--Day to give thanks for the abundance of our land and for our food, clothes, shelter, and health.

* 11/29: International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People--Vigil for recognition of the state of Palestine, for recognition of all human rights of all its citizens (whether Muslim, Jewish, or Christian), and for peaceful coexistence with the state of Israel. [See U.N. website on Solidarity with the Palestinian People Day. See also The History of the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict.]

* 12/1: World AIDS Day--Day to pray for healing of all those suffering with AIDS and HIV. [For information on World AIDS Day, see World AIDS Day website. For information about the global fight against AIDS, see UNAIDS website.]

* 12/6: Day the Babri Mosque was destroyed by a Hindu mob in Ayodhya, India (1992); day to mourn willful destruction of any place of worship. Places of worship of all religions should be respected by all. [Prior to its construction in 1528, the mosque had been a Hindu temple that marked the birthplace of the God Rama. That temple had been destroyed by Babur as part of his effort to conquer and Islamize the area. 2000 Hindu temples were allegedly destroyed by him.]

* 12/8: Death day of Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (1111), Sufi saint who taught about unity of the soul with the one universal Deity of 99 names and attributes. [al-Ghazali lived in Syria and wrote "Revival of Religious Sciences" and "Alchemy of Happiness".] [Urs celebrated on Jumada al-thani 14.] [Born 1058: exact date unknown]

* 12/10: Day the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted, and fundamental rights were recognized world-wide (1948). [The U.N. General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (U.D.H.R.) in Resolution 217 A(III).] [Text of Declaration] [For information on the history of the U.D.H.R., see Franklin & Eleanor Roosevelt Institute website. The U.D.H.R. is generally recognized as binding customary international law: all countries are required to respect the rights within it. In 1966, the concepts of the U.D.H.R. were expanded and drafted into two binding international treaties with enforcement mechanisms. The Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Text of Covenant) is enforced by the Human Rights Committee. The Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (Text of Covenant) is enforced by the Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. For more information, see U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights website; Human Rights Watch website; Amnesty International website.] [In the name of Allah, and for love of Allah, Muslims should demand universal observance of all rights enumerated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights - for all people.] [a/k/a International Human Rights Day]

* 12/15: Day the Bill of Rights became part of the U.S. Constitution, guaranteeing fundamental rights to all (1791). [Text of Bill of Rights] [For more information about the Bill of Rights and the U.S. Constitution, see U.S. National Archives & Records Administration website and the Bill of Rights Institute website. For information on organizations that advocate for enforcement of rights and liberties in the Bill of Rights, see Center for Constitutional Rights website; American Civil Liberties Union website.] [a/k/a Bill of Rights Day]

* 12/17: Death day of Jalal ad-Din Rumi (1273), Sufi saint who believed all people to be part of Deity and, consequently, believed all should be respected. [Members of his Mevlevi order whirl in his remembrance on this night annually.] [See article on Jalal ad-Din Rumi. And see Mevlevi Order website, Mevlevi Order of America website, and Threshold Society website.] [Birthday 9/30/1207] [Wissal on Jumada al-thani 5.]

* 12/17: Day the Clean Air Act was enacted (1963); day to give thanks for the air we breathe. [Pub. L. 88-206, 77 Stat. 392, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.] [Text of statute] [For information on air pollution, see U.S. E.P.A. website; American Lung Association website; EarthJustice website; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website.]

* 12/26: Day to mourn all those killed in the Asian tsunami (2004) and to aid those who survived.

* 12/28: Day the Endangered Species Act was enacted (1973); day to mourn those creatures already extinct. [Pub. L. 93-205, 87 Stat. 884, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.] [Text of statute] [For information on endangered species preservation, see U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service website; Endangered Species Coalition website; National Wildlife Federation website; Defenders of Wildlife website; EarthJustice website; Natural Resources Defense Counsel (N.R.D.C.) website.]

* 12/28: Day an Islamic court ruled female genital mutilation to be un-Islamic and banned the practice (1997). [The State Council, Egypt's highest administrative court, also ruled that F.G.M. is illegal unless medically necessary. See BBC News article.] [See also Gender Equity in Islam (which indicates F.G.M. predates Islam, is not mentioned in the Qur'an, and is not mandated by any hadith).] [For more information about F.G.M., see Female Genital and Sexual Mutilation - Bibliography.]

* 12/31 eve to 1/30 eve: Dhu al-Hijjah--Muslim month of pilgrimage (the Hajj) to honor Allah, the one genderless universal Deity, at the shrine of the holy Kaaba Stone in Mecca. [Mecca was also the site of the Old Arabic shrine to God Al-Lah and his daughters, Goddesses Al-Lat, Al-'Uzza, and Manat. See Qur'an Surah 53, Vs. 19-20. See also summaries of scholarship on the "Daughters of Allah" from the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement, from Wikipedia, from Sam Shamoun, and from Margi B. ] [a/k/a Zul-Hijjah]

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

[The Muslim religion (Islam) is a universal religion founded in Saudi Arabia by the Prophet Muhammad, following the first revelation of the Qur'an (Koran) to him by the Angel Gabriel in 610. The Muslim holy scripture is the Qur'an. Muslim holy tradition is also reflected in the Hadith and the Sunnah, which recount the sayings and conduct of the Prophet Muhammad. The Muslim creed is: "There is no god but God (Allah), and Muhammad is the Messenger of God (Allah)." Muslims recognize the one Deity to have a multitude of names and attributes. They pray 5 times daily facing Mecca. Muslims also attend Mosques for Jum'ah prayer, Qur'anic readings, and Qur'anic interpretation on Fridays. Muslim denominations include the Sunni, the Shi'a, the Ahmadiyya (Ahmadi), and the Sufi. The main difference between the Sunnis and the Shi'ites relate to the recognition of different successors to the Prophet Muhammad. The Ahmadiyya Muslim Jamaat (now the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam) was founded in 1889 by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. Sufism (Tasawwuf) is the mysticism of Islam. Sufis practice Dhikr, the invocation of Allah by repeating Allah's 99 names and attributes.]

[The Muslim calendar (Islamic calendar or Sufi calendar) year is a lunar year, not grounded in the solar year. The Islamic year and Islamic months begin at the first sighting of the New Moon. Islamic days begin and end at sundown. In calculating the beginning of the year, the months, and the holidays, some Muslims use the sighting of the New Moon at their own location; other Muslims use the sighting of the New Moon or the astronomical New Moon in Saudi Arabia. The months, on which the holidays in this Muslim calendar are based, are calculated using the expected first sighting of the New Moon in North America. Consequently, because Saudi Arabia is 8 hours earlier than North American Eastern Standard time, some Muslims may observe the holiday on the day before the date given here.]

[The Muslim holidays (Islamic holidays or Sufi holidays) in this Muslim calendar include holidays observed by all Muslim denominations, some holidays and events not universally observed, as well as dates commemorating the lives and teachings of Sufi mystics.]

[Please note: Because this calendar is a multifaith calendar, the term "God" is used only when referring to a male deity. The term "Deity" is used to refer to the Universal gender-neutral Deity that encompasses both male and female characteristics and all Gods and Goddesses.]

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

The 99 Names and Attributes of Allah:

(1) Ar-Rehman (The Compassionate One, The Beneficent)
(2) Ar-Rahim (The Merciful)
(3) Al-Malik (The Sovereign)
(4) Al-Quddus (The Holy One)
(5) As-Salaam (The Source of Peace)
(6) Al-Mu'min (The Guardian of Faith)
(7) Al-Muhaymin (The Protector)
(8) Al-'Aziz (The Mighty, The Strong)
(9) Al-Jabbar (The Compeller)
(10) Al-Mutakabbir (The Majestic One)
(11) Al-Khaaliq (The Creator)
(12) Al-Bari' (The Evolver)
(13) Al-Musawwir (The Fashioner)
(14) Al-Ghaffar (The Forgiver)
(15) Al-Qahhar (The Subduer)
(16) Al-Wahhab (The Bestower)
(17) Ar-Razzaaq (The Sustainer, The Provider)
(18) Al-Fattah (The Opener, The Reliever)
(19) Al-'Alim (The All-Knowing)
(20) Al-Qaabid (The Constrictor, the Withholder)
(21) Al-Basit (The Expander, the Enlarger)
(22) Al-Khafid (The Abaser)
(23) Ar-Rafi' (The Exalter)
(24) Al-Mu'izz (The One Who Honors)
(25) Al-Muzill (The One Who Humbles)
(26) As-Sami' (The All-Hearing One)
(27) Al-Basir (The All-Seeing One)
(28) Al-Hakam (The Judge)
(29) Al-'Adl (The Just)
(30) Al-Latif (The Subtle One)
(31) Al-Khabir (The Aware)
(32) Al-Halim (The Forebearing One)
(33) Al-'Azim (The Great One)
(34) Al-Ghafur (The All-Forgiving One)
(35) Ash-Shakur (The Grateful One)
(36) Al-'Ali (The Most High)
(37) Al-Kabir (The Most Great)
(38) Al-Hafiz (The Preserver, The Protector)
(39) Al-Muqit (The Maintainer, The Guardian)
(40) Al-Hasib (The Reckoner)
(41) Al-Jalil (The Beautiful, The Sublime)
(42) Al-Karim (The Generous One)
(43) Ar-Raqib (The Watcher)
(44) Al-Mujib (The Responsive One)
(45) Al-Wasi' (The Vast, The All-Embracing One)
(46) Al-Hakim (The Wise, The Judge of Judges)
(47) Al-Wadud (The Loving One)
(48) Al-Majid (The Glorious One)
(49) Al-Ba'ith (The Resurrector)
(50) Ash-Shahid (The Witness)
(51) Al-Haqq (The Truth)
(52) Al-Wakil (The Trustee)
(53) Al-Qawi (The Most Strong)
(54) Al-Matin (The Firm One)
(55) Al-Wali (The Protecting Friend, The Supporter)
(56) Al-Hamid (The Praised One)
(57) Al-Muhsi (The Reckoner)
(58) Al-Mubdi' (The Originator)
(59) Al-Mu'id (The Restorer of Life)
(60) Al-Muhyi (The Giver of Life)
(61) Al-Mumit (The Destroyer of Life)
(62) Al Hayy (The Living One)
(63) Al-Qayyum (The Self-Subsisting One)
(64) Al-Wajid (The Perceiver)
(65) Al-Majid (The Glorious)
(66) Al-Wahid (The Unique)
(67) Al-Ahad (The One)
(68) As-Samad (The Eternal)
(69) Al-Qadir (The Able One)
(70) Al-Muqtadir (The Giver of Power)
(71) Al-Muqaddim (The Expediter)
(72) Al-Muta'akhkhir (The Delayer)
(73) Al-Awwal (The First)
(74) Al-Akhir (The Last)
(75) Az-Zahir (The Manifest)
(76) Al-Batin (The Hidden)
(77) Al-Wali (The Governor)
(78) Al-Muta'ali (The Most Exalted One)
(79) Al-Barr (The Source of All Goodness)
(80) At-Tawwab (The Accepter of Repentance)
(81) Al-Muntaqim (The Avenger)
(82) Al-Afuww (The Pardoner)
(83) Ar-Ra'uf (The Indulgent)
(84) Malik ul-Mulk (Eternal Owner of Sovereignty)
(85) Dhu'l Jalal-wa'l-Ikram (Majesty and Bounty)
(86) Al-Muqsit (The Equitable One)
(87) Al-Jami' (The Gatherer)
(88) Al-Ghani (The Self-Sufficient One)
(89) Al-Mughni (The Enricher)
(90) Al-Mani' (The Preventer)
(91) Ad-Darr (The Distresser)
(92) An-Nafi' (The Propitious One)
(93) An-Nur (The Light)
(94) Al-Hadi (The Guide)
(95) Al-Badi' (The Incomparable)
(96) Al-Baqi (The Everlasting One)
(97) Al-Warith (The Supreme Inheritor)
(98) Ar-Rashid (The Guide to the Right Path)
(99) As-Sabur (The Patient One)

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Permission to use and distribute these excerpts is granted for non-commercial purposes, provided the following information is included:

Excerpted from
THE MYSTIC'S WHEEL OF THE YEAR 2005
A Multifaith Calendar Reflecting Eco-Egalitarian Spirituality
© 2004 Marija Miovski
www.WheeloftheYear.com